Interpretation of multiple values

The interpretation of an element with multiple child elements or an attribute with multiple values can be quite unclear. Do those multiple values, which happen frequently in TAN files, represent intersection, union, or distribution? For example, attribute="A B" could be interpreted to mean, using the diagram below, one instance in y (intersection), one instance in the region of x or y or z (union), or one instance in x or y and one instance in y and z (distribution).

Figure 3.1. Venn%20diagram.jpeg

Venn%20diagram.jpeg

The interpretation of multiple values in any TAN element or attribute is based upon perceived common usage in ordinary English language. For example, any element that takes the the section called “IRI + name Pattern” allows multiple <IRI>s. If entity j has <IRI>s A and B, and entity k has <IRI>s B and C, can j be inferred to be the same entity as k? Because people commonly use the same term while meaning different things, TAN can define only the first half of the answer to this question. The IRI + name pattern is to be interpreted as union. But the TAN schemas cannot predict how people will interpret the extent of those two unions, or any IRI for that matter.

The TAN schemas define, whenever possible, how multiple values in an element or attribute are to be interpreted.

Intersection. Qualifications of claims, e.g., @adverb, @claimant. For example, "...probably not..." does not mean "...probably" and "...not..." Not a transitive property (for j = A, B; k = B, C, nothing can be inferred about the relationship between j and k).

Union (default). Anything that takes the the section called “IRI + name Pattern”, <equate-works>, @when <when>, @where. For example, "entity j is [urn:A], [urn:B]" means that entity j is urn A, urn B, or both. TAN interprets this property as being transitive (for j = A, B; k = B, C; l = C, D, one may infer j = k = l).

[Warning]Warning

The interpretation of union as being transitive may result in inferences you disagree with. It is your responsibility to interrogate inferences in the TAN files you are using.

Distribution. @affects-element, @object, <object>, @src, @subject, <subject>, @verb. For example, "[Source A], [source B], are Z" means "Source A is Z" and "Source B is Z." This property is not transitive.

We must also consider range. If entity x is said to be A, does it mean that it is true for all of x and all of A, or just some part of each? Once again, common usage dictates TAN interpretation. If the entity is one or more word tokens are being picked, then the statement is assumed to hold over the entire entity. If the claim is being made of divisions of text, that assumption cannot be made.