TAN keywords for features (<feature>)

This file contains in TAN-key format the core vocabulare adopted by OLiA for parts of speech: http://purl.org/olia/olia.owl.

Master location: http://textalign.net/release/TAN-1-dev/TAN-key/features.TAN-key.xml

Table 9.3. TAN keywords for features

keywords (optional values of @which)IRIsComments
  • abbreviation

 
  • accusative

EAGLES

In nominative-accusative languages, accusative case marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsAccusativeCase.htm 17.11.06)

  • acronym

EAGLES category Residual with Type="Acronym".

An acronym is an abbreviation, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. Acronyms are used most often to abbreviate names of organizations and long or frequently referenced terms. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acronym 19.09.06)

  • adjectival

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Adjectival

In MULTEXT-East a characteristic of attributive pronouns and abbreviated adjectives, e.g., in Ukrainian e.g., абичий/= бозна-чий/= будь-чий/= дечий/= хтозна-чий/= чий-будь/= чий-небудь/= чийсь/=, абичийого/абичий аби до чийого/абичий бозна-чийого/бозна-чий будь-чийого/будь-чий дечийого/дечий хтозна-чийого/хтозна-чий чийого-будь/чий-будь чийого-небудь/чий-небудь чийогось/чийсь, абичийого/абичий бозна-чийого/бозна-чий будь-чийого/будь-чий дечийого/дечий хтозна-чийого/хтозна-чий чийого-будь/чий-будь чийого-небудь/чий-небудь чийогось/чийсь, абичийому/абичий абичиєму/абичий абичиїм/абичий аби на чийому/абичий аби на чиєму/абичий аби на чиїм/абичий бозна на чийому/бозна-чий бозна на чиєму/бозна-чий бозна на чиїм/бозна-чий будь-чийому/будь-чий будь-чиєму/будь-чий будь-чиїм/будь-чий будь на чийому/будь-чий будь на чиєму/будь-чий будь на чиїм/будь-чий дечийому/дечий дечиєму/дечий дечиїм/дечий де на чийому/дечий де на чиєму/дечий, абичийому/абичий абичиєму/абичий бозна-чийому/бозна-чий бозна-чиєму/бозна-чий будь-чийому/будь-чий будь-чиєму/будь-чий дечийому/дечий дечиєму/дечий хтозна-чийому/хтозна-чий хтозна-чиєму/хтозна-чий чийому-будь/чий-будь чиєму-будь/чий-будь чийому-небудь/чий-небудь чиєму-небудь/чий-небудь чийомусь/чийсь чиємусь/чийсь, абичийому/абичий абичиєму/абичий бозна-чийому/бозна-чий будь-чийому/будь-чий будь-чиєму/будь-чий дечийому/дечий хтозна-чийому/хтозна-чий чийому-будь/чий-будь чийому-небудь/чий-небудь чийомусь/чийсь, абичию/абичий бозна-чию/бозна-чий будь-чию/будь-чий дечию/дечий хтозна-чию/хтозна-чий чию-будь/чий-будь чию-небудь/чий-небудь чиюсь/чийсь, абичия/абичий бозна-чия/бозна-чий будь-чия/будь-чий дечия/дечий хтозна-чия/хтозна-чий чия-будь/чий-будь чия-небудь/чий-небудь чиясь/чийсь, абичиє/абичий бозна-чиє/бозна-чий будь-чиє/будь-чий дечиє/дечий хтозна-чиє/хтозна-чий чиє-будь/чий-будь чиє-небудь/чий-небудь чиєсь/чийсь (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Adjectival)

  • adjective

EAGLES top-level category Adjective (AJ).

An Adjective is a noun-modifying expression that specifies the properties or attributes of the nominal referent. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAdjective.htm 18.9.06)

  • adjective attributive

  • attributive adjective

EAGLES Adjective with Use="Attributive".

An attributive adjective is an adjective that qualifies or modifies a noun and that precedes the noun, e.g."a delicious apple", "a short letter". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective 18.09.06)

  • adjective ordinal

  • ordinal adjective

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1338

Adjective expressing a numeric ranking. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1338) Cf. "second", "next", "last"

subClassOf adjective (dcif:isA)

  • adjective participle

  • participle adjective

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1598

Adjective based on a verb. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1598)

subClassOf adjective (dcif:isA)

  • adjective participle past

  • past participle adjective

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1596

Adjective based on a past participle. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1596)

subClassOf participleAdjective (dcif:isA)

  • adjective participle present

  • present participle adjective

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1597

Adjective based on a present participle. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1597)

subClassOf participleAdjective (dcif:isA)

  • adjective possessive

  • possessive adjective

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PossessiveAdjective

A PossessiveAdjective is an denominal adjective, often derived from a ProperNoun, that serves to indicate possession in most Slavic languages. Unlike a genitival construction, a possessive adjective shows agreement with its head noun. (Chiarcos)

Adjective/Type="possessive" are denominal, not pronominal expressions of possession (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/09). Therefore not to be confused with Pronoun/Type=adjectival(a) (Bulgarian only), for words like умно /cleverly, wisely, sensibly/, which are derived from adjectives. (Dimitrova et al. 2009) e.g., Slovene dušikovima/dušikov, Marsovi/Marsov, Slovak vojvodova/vojvodov, vojvodove/vojvodov, vojvodovej/vojvodov, vojvodovho/vojvodov, vojvodovi/vojvodov, vojvodovmu/vojvodov, vojvodovo/vojvodov, vojvodovom/vojvodov, vojvodovou/vojvodov, Serbian evroazijske/evroazijska, evroazijskih/evroazijski, Goldštajnov, govornikov, Jehovine/Jehovin, malabarskom/malabarski, O'Brajenov, O'Brajenovog/O'Brajenov, oficirov, Czech Riegrovými/Riegrův, Stradellovými/Stradellův, Tristanovou/Tristanův, Wagnerových/Wagnerův, Wagnerovým/Wagnerův, Weberovi/Weberův, Weberových/Weberův, Wertherovi/Wertherův, Winstonovi/Winstonův (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PossessiveAdjective)

  • adjective predicative

  • predicative adjective

EAGLES Adjective with Use="Predicative".

A predicative adjective is one which functions as part of the predicate of a sentence. This means that it is linked to the noun by a verb, often a copula (such as to be). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adjective 18.09.06)

  • adjective qualifier

  • qualifier adjective

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1477, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#QualificativeAdjective

Adjective used to qualify. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1477)

subClassOf adjective (dcif:isA)

  • adjective relational

  • relational adjective

cf. OrdinalAdjective

The Slovene adjective expresses three main ideas: quality (qualitative adjectives, kakovostni pridevniki), relation (relational adjectives, vrstni pridevniki) and possession (possessive adjectives, svojilni pridevniki). Relational adjectives express type, class or numerical sequence of a noun. For instance: kemijska in fizikalna sprememba (chemical and physical change), fotografski aparat (photographic device (=camera)). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovene_grammar)

  • adjective substantive

  • substantive adjective

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1394

An adjective that modifies an implied, but not expressed, noun. When translating such an adjective into English, you must supply the missing noun. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1394) (Chiarcos: this seems to pertain to nominalization)

  • adjunct syntactic

  • syntactic adjunct

Prototypically, an optional (morpho)syntactic constituent. 'Satellites are not ... required by the predicate; they give optional further information pertaining to additional features of the SoA ..., the location of the SoA ..., the speaker's attitude towards or evaluation of the propositional content ..., or the character of the speech act...' (Dik, 1997:87) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticAdjunct) The category adjunct (ADJ) is assigned to those constituents that appear as optional additions, be it to the main verb or to a given noun. This means that they can be left out freely without a change in grammaticality or a significant change in meaning. In "John called Mary (from school) (with his cell phone)" the optional additions "from school" and "with his cell phone" are such optional additions that can be left out freely. Adjuncts are generally used to convey additional information about the time, place, manner, or cause of the event or situation described by the clause (see below). That is, they restrict the class of events/ situations described by the clause to a subset. If required the category ADJ can be split up into semantic sub-categories, that are annotated in layer semantic roles (time, location, etc.). (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.3)

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticAdjunct

  • adjunction

PTB Bracketing Guidelines, Santorini (1991)

The term \adjunction structure" refers to structures which would be represented by tree diagrams of the general form in (@9). The de ning characteristic of adjunction structures is that a node X dominates another instance of X. (Santorini 1991)

  • adposition

EAGLES top-level category Adposition (AP).

An adposition is a cover term for prepositions, postpositions and circumpositions. It expresses a grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAdposition.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adposition 19.09.06) The majority of cases of adpositions we have to consider in European languages are prepositions. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#SECTION00062200000000000000 19.09.06)

  • adverb

EAGLES top-level category Adverb (AV). Skipped subconcepts ParticleAdverb and GeneralAdverb: ParticleAdverb is better described by the join of particles or adverbs rather than positing an independent category; GeneralAdverb is merely the complement of DegreeAdverb.

An adverb is a part of speech that serves to modify non-nominal parts of speech, i.e., verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs. Modifiers of nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adverbs 18.09.06)

  • adverb adjectival

  • adjectival adverb

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdjectivalAdverb

An adjectival adverb is an adverb that is formally identical to an adjective.<br/> MULTEXT-East Adverb/Type="adjectival" (Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian)<br/> Bulgarian AdjectivalAdverbs have the same form as adjectives in Gender = neuter, Person = 3, Number = singular. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdjectivalAdverb)

  • adverb causal

  • causal adverb

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CausalAdverb

Adverb/Type="causal" is used in the Hungarian MTE v4, but no examples are provided. (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CausalAdverb)

  • adverb degree

  • degree adverb

EAGLES Adverb with Adverb-Type="Degree".

Any adverb which modifies an adjective, an adverb, a verbal particle, a preposition, a conjunction or a determiner is a degree adverb. (http://xlex.uni-muenster.de/Portal/MTPE/tagsetDescriptionEN.doc, p. 113, 8.1 Degree Adverbs 23.09.06) Also known as specifier adverb (http://www.unlweb.net/unlarium/dictionary/export_tagset.php)

  • adverb demonstrative

  • demonstrative adverb

http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#AdverbialDemonstrative, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#DistalDemonstrativeAdverb

Pronominal adverb derived from a demonstrative stem (Ch. Chiarcos)

  • adverb exclamatory

  • exclamatory adverb

EAGLES WHAdverb with Wh-Type="Exclamatory".

An ExclamatoryAdverb seves to express exclamation, cf. how in "How well everyone played!" Exclamative sentences or exclamatives An exclamatory sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement, in particular, they are used are used to express strong feelings (Latin exclamare : "to call out, to cry out"). (http://english.unitecnology.ac.nz/resources/resources/exp_lang/sentence.html 07.05.07, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_(linguistics) 07.05.07)

  • adverb interrogative

  • interrogative adverb

EAGLES Adverb with Wh-Type="Interrogative".

Interrogative adverbs are used to introduce questions, e.g. "When are you coming?" (Angelika Adam)

  • adverb location

  • location adverb

ILPOSTS, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#LocationAdverb

  • adverb manner

  • manner adverb

ILPOSTS, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#MannerAdverb

  • adverb modifier

  • modifier adverb

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ModifierAdverb

Adverb/Type="modifier" is used in the English, Romanian and Hungarian MTE v4 specs. For Romanian, Adverb/Type="modifier" applies to adverbs which can have predicative role, that is they can govern a subordinate sentence (ex. Fireşte că o ştiu -- Certainly I know it). Here (for uniformity within a multilingual environment), they are squeezed into the modifier class. (MTE v4) e.g., better (en) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ModifierAdverb)

  • adverb negative

  • negative adverb

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeAdverb

to be modelled as SemanticRole (cf. CausalAdverb) ?

Adverb/Type="negative" are used in the Serbian and Romanian MTE v4 specs, e.g., for Romanian nicăieri - nowhere, niciodată - never. (MTE v4) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeAdverb)

  • adverb pronominal

  • pronominal adverb

EAGLES Adverb with Adverb-Type="Pronominal". Against the EAGLES definition given below, pronominal adverbs can but don't have to be used for pronominal references, thus this special and diachronically important case is better described by the join of this with personal pronoun.

Pronominal adverbs substitute for a preposition (which is incorporated into them) and an NP, cf. English therefore lit. "for this (reason, ...)", German deswegen lit. "because of this (reason, ...)". (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/elm_de/node235.html 21.09.06, examples Ch. Chiarcos)

  • adverb relative

  • relative adverb

EAGLES Adverb with Wh-Type="Relative".

The value relative is used for adverbs in clear relative cases as in: "The place 'where' I met you.", "The reason 'why' I did it." (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/pub/eagles/lexicons/elm_en.ps.gz, p.33, 07.05.07)

  • adverb verbal

  • verbal adverb

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#VerbalAdverb

Adverb/Type="verbal" applies to adverbs derived from from verbs (verbal adverbs) in the Serbian, Macedonian and Hungarian MTE v4 specs. Macedonian verbal adverbs (gerunds) like odejkji are thus not considered as verbal forms, but as Adverb/Type="verbal". (MTE v4) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#VerbalAdverb)

  • adverbial

Bies et al. 1995

-ADV (adverbial) — marks a constituent other than ADVP or PP when it is used adverbially (e.g., NPs or free (“headless”) relatives). However, constituents that themselves are modifying an ADVP generally do not get -ADV. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • adverbs whtype

  • whtype adverbs

TODO: rename to WHTypeAdverb

EAGLES Adverb with Polarity="Wh-type".

See remarks on WHPronoun, this is actually a language-specific trait and should probably be removed.

Adverb that serves to express interrogativity, exclamation or that serves to link a subordinate clause to the matrix clause. (Ch. Chiarcos)

  • affix

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1234

Letter or group of letters which are added to a word to make a new word. (Sue Ellen Wright; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1234)

  • anchored temporally not

  • not temporally anchored

A replacement for TDS Habitual that is modelled here as an Aspect: Habitual tense pertains to verbs which refer to an action that occurs repeatedly. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#habitualTense)

To be used for actions that are not bound to a particular reference point.

  • animacy other

  • other animacy

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1953

Perceived as related to animacy, but without specific reference to the previous items. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1953)

subClassOf animacy (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • animate

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1911

Perceived as alive. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1911)

subClassOf animacy (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • annotation of unit

  • unit of annotation

 
  • anticausative

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Anticausative This is a semantic manipulation of the verb frame (and thus limited to a specific semantic class of verbs) rather than a grammatical device for the manipulation of argument structure, therefore classified as Active here.

An intransitive verb is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive. (Siewierska 1988:267) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Anticausative)

  • antipassive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Antipassive

Derives an intransitive verb from a transitive stem whereby the original agent (only) is cross-referrenced by the absolutive markers on the verb and the original patient, if it appears, is in an oblique phrase. (England 1983:110) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Antipassive)

  • antipassive absolutive

  • absolutive antipassive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbsolutiveAntipassive

An Antipassive in which the P or logical object is suppressed or overtly absent. (Klaiman 1991:232) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbsolutiveAntipassive)

  • antipassive focus

  • focus antipassive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FocusAntipassive

Blocks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the P, but Focus salience is always assigned to A, and is therefore inaccessible to P or any other nominal. (Klaiman 1991:236) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FocusAntipassive)

  • antipassive incorporating

  • incorporating antipassive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IncorporatingAntipassive

Blocks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. This correlates with the P's morphosyntactic downgrading, whereby it becomes insusceptible to any informational salience assignment. (Klaiman 1991:236) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IncorporatingAntipassive)

  • antipassive nonabsolutive

  • nonabsolutive antipassive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonabsolutiveAntipassive

An Antipassive in which the P or logical object is overtly downgraded. (Klaiman 1991:232) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonabsolutiveAntipassive)

  • aorist

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1240

Simple past tense that is predominantly used for narration. Both the perfective and the imperfective forms can be used in the aorist without any restrictions. (www.helsinki.fi/~bontchev/grammar/index.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1240)

  • apocope

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2254

deletion of the final element in a word (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2254)

  • apposition

Apposition is a relation between two phrases: (1) the nucleus phrase and (2) an appositive phrase, generally set o by punctuation, which modi es the nucleus phrase. An example of apposition is given in (@11). (11) Ryukichi Imai, Japan’s ambassador to Mexico, agrees that Mexico may be too eager. Here, Ryukichi Imai is the nucleus phrase, and the phrase enclosed in commas, Japan’s ambassador to Mexico, is the appositive. Instances of apposition should be represented as adjunction structures (see Section 3.1). (Santorini 1991)

added in accordance with TIGER, definition according to PTB Bracketing Guidelines (Santorini 1991)

  • argument expletive

  • expletive argument

Three different expletive usages [of the German expletive pronoun es] are traditionally distinguished: formal subject or object (expletive argument), correlate of an extraposed clausal argument (expletive correlate), and Vorfeld-es (structural expletive) (cf. (Eisenberg 1999 2001), (Pütz 1986)). ... The formal subject obligatorily occurs with weather verbs, e.g. "Es regnet" and unpersonal or agentless constructions such as "Es gibt so eine Buchung" or "Es geht um populäre Unterhaltung." Some verbs optionally permit an expletive subject but also occur with referential subjects such as "Max/Es kopft an der Tür." A formal object is found in constructions like "jmd. legt es an auf etw." or "jmd. verdirbt es mit jmdm." In all examples mentioned, es functions as a grammatical argument without semantic contribution, i.e. it does not refer to a person, object, or event. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.60f)

TüBa-D/Z

  • argument measure

  • measure argument

added in conformance with TIGER

TODO: check definition

added in conformance with TIGER

  • argument syntactic

  • syntactic argument

added to account for TIGER edge labels with syntactic function

An inherent (morpho)syntactic constituent subcategorized for by a predicate.<br/> 'Arguments are those terms which are required by some predicate in order to form a complete nuclear predication. They are essential to the integrity of the SoA designated by the predicate frame. If we leave them out, the property/relation designated by the predicate is not fulfilled or satisfied.' (Dik, 1997:86f)<br/> An argument can be a controller in an agreement relation. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticArgument)<br/> The category ARG is assigned to those syntactic constituents that appear as obligatory complements to the main verb. This means that they cannot be left out without a change in grammaticality or a significant change in meaning. (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.3)

  • art prep fused

  • fused prep art

EAGLES Adposition with Type="FusedPrepArt"

The additional value Fused prep-art is for the benefit of those who do not find it practical to split fused words such as French au (= à + le) into two text words. This very common phenomenon of a fused preposition + article in West European languages should preferably, however, be handled by assigning two tags to the same orthographic word (one for the preposition and one for the article). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1ap 19.09.06)

  • article

EAGLE top-level category "Article" (AT): In Eagles articles are subsumed under determiners and kept as a separate class. It is a sub-class of determiners which is disjoint with the other determiner classes. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recn 18.09.06) Modelled here as sub-class of Determiner because of its syntactic function.

An article is a member of a small class of determiners that identify a noun's definite or indefinite reference, and the new or given status. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnArticle.htm 02.05.07)

  • article definite

  • definite article

EAGLES Article with Article-Type="Definite".

A definite article is used before singular and plural nouns that refer to a particular member of a group. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_%28grammar%29 18.09.06)

  • article definite clitic

  • clitic definite article

cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticDistalDeterminer

clitic definite determiner, e.g., in Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Romanian (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticDeterminerType)

  • article definite full

  • full definite article

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1928

For definiteness, when a specific form is the syntactic subject of the clause. (DFKI; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1928)

DCR: "full article" in dcif:conceptualDomain definiteness, remodelled as a property of DefiniteArticles here

  • article definite short

  • short definite article

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1927 (short article)

For definiteness, when a specific form is not the syntactic subject of the clause. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1927)

DCR: subClassOf definiteness (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • article indefinite

  • indefinite article

EAGLES Article with Article-Type="Indefinite".

An indefinite article is used before singular nouns that refer to any member of a group. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_%28grammar%29 18.09.06)

  • article nonspecific

  • nonspecific article

introduced in analogy with SpecificArticle

"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf)

  • article partitive

  • partitive article

TODO: Check relationship with PartitiveDeterminer

EAGLES Article with Article-Type="Partitive". (optional for French)

A partitive article indicates an indefinite quantity of a mass noun; there is no partitive article in English, though the words some or any often have that function. An example is French du / de la / des, as in Voulez-vous du café? ("Do you want some coffee?" or "Do you want coffee"). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_(grammar) 19.09.06)

  • article possessive

  • possessive article

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PossessiveArticle

not to be confused with PoessiveDeterminer

In Romanian, the possessive article (also called genitival article) is an element in the structure of the possessive pronoun, of the ordinal numeral (e.g. al meu (mine) and al treilea (the third)), and of the indefinite genitive forms of the nouns (e.g. capitol al cărţii (chapter of the book)), e.g., -al/al, a/al, ai/al, al, ale/al, alor/al (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PossessiveArticle)

  • article specific

  • specific article

introduced to account for the specific determiner in Farsi (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticSpecificDeterminer)

"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf)

  • article specific clitic

  • clitic specific article

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticSpecificDeterminer

Persian does have an article, but it marks specificity rather than definiteness. The Persian article is similar to the Balkan one (a clitic of pronominal origin that's written together with the word), except that it isn't exactly definite (you can even see it described as an indefinite article). (Ivan A. Derzhanski, p.c. 2010/06/18)

  • aspect cessative

  • cessative aspect

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2001

Aspect that expresses the cessation of an event or state. (SIL; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2001)

subClassOf aspect (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • aspect continuous

  • continuous aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Continuous

Similar to progressive, however an aspect is continuous versus progressive when it is anchored to non-punctual time reference (Salaberry 2002:264). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Continuous)

  • aspect durative

  • durative aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Durative

Events which involve some duration (Bhat 1999:58). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Durative)

  • aspect dynamic

  • dynamic aspect

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#dynamicityAspect

dynamic aspect (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#dynamicityAspect)

  • aspect frequentive

  • frequentive aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Frequentive

Events which are frequently repeated, differs from habitual in that it can only be based upon the observation of several occurrences of the event concerned, whereas habitual can be based upon the observation of a single occurrence (Bhat 1999: 53). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Frequentive)

  • aspect habitual

  • habitual aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Habitual (as Aspect), http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#habitualTense (as Tense), modelled as an aspect here (temporally unmarked Habitual should be modelled as NotTemporallyAnchored)

Habitual tense pertains to verbs which refer to an action that occurs repeatedly. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#habitualTense) Refers to the internal temporal contour of a situation — a repeated situation that occupies a large slice of time. Can be based on the observation of a single occurrence. (Bhat 1999:177) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Habitual)

  • aspect imperfective

  • imperfective aspect

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperfectiveAspect, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Imperfective

The Imperfective aspect is an aspect that expresses an event or state, with respect to its internal structure, instead of expressing it as a simple whole. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsImperfectiveAspect.htm 17.11.06) The imperfective aspects ... do not view the situation as bounded, but rather as ongoing in either a durative, continuative or habitual sense (Bybee 1985:21) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperfectiveAspect) A viewpoint aspect which encodes the speaker’s lack of attention to the endpoints of the situation referred to. Imperfective aspect is the prototypical mode of presentation for states (Michaelis 1998:xiv). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Imperfective)

  • aspect inceptive

  • inceptive aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inceptive

InceptiveAspect, also called the ingressive, encodes the beginning portion of some event (Bybee 1985: 147, 149; Payne 1997: 240; Bhat 1999:176). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inceptive)

  • aspect iterative

  • iterative aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Iterative

IterativeAspect, also called repetitives, encodes a number of events of the same type that are repeated on a particular occasion. The time interval which is relevant to the iterative is relatively shorter than in the case of the habitual (Bybee 1985: 150; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127). Portrays events repeated on the same occasion (like the iterative knocking on the door) (Bhat 1999: 53) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Iterative)

  • aspect perfective

  • perfective aspect

EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perfective

The perfective aspects (inceptive, punctual and completive) view the situation as a bounded entity, and often put an emphasis on its beginning or end. (Bybee 1985:21) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#perfectiveAspect) The Perfective aspect is an aspect that expresses a temporal view of an event or state as a simple whole, apart from the consideration of the internal structure of the time in which it occurs. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsPerfectiveAspect.htm 17.11.06) A viewpoint aspect which encodes the speaker’s willingness to attend to the endpoints of the situation referred to. Perfective aspect is the canonical mode of presentation for events (Michaelis 1998: xv). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perfective)

  • aspect phasal

  • phasal aspect

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#phaseAspect, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phasal

A set of aspectual distinctions involving relations between a background situation (the reference situation) and a situation located relative to the reference situation (the denoted situation). In English, phasal distinctions are expressed by auxiliary-headed constructions, like the inceptive, progressive, and perfect constructions, whose head verbs express the aspectual class of the denoted situation. The aspectual class of the denoted situation differs from that of the reference situation (Michaelis 1998:xv). An event may have a beginning and an end, a middle portion (continuing or changing), and also an ensuing result or an altered state. These are considered to be the various “phases‽ of an event. A speaker may talk about an event from the point of view of any of these individual phases, and his language may have inflectional (or other type of) markers for representing these distinctions. Since such markers indicate distinctions in the temporal structure of an event, we may regard them as belonging to the category of aspect. It has been suggested (Dik 1989: 186) that these may be grouped under a subcategory (or “level") of aspect called “phasal aspect". (Bhat 1999:49) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phasal)

  • aspect progressive

  • progressive aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Progressive

ProgressiveAspect, also called the continuative or the durative, encodes a single event as an ongoing process. Thus, states cannot generally be encoded with the progressive (Comrie 1976: 32-35; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127-139; Payne 1997: 240). An exponent of phasal aspect which expresses a stative situation that holds during the time at which an event is occurring (e. g., He is fixing the fence) (Michaelis 1998:xv). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Progressive)

  • aspect purposive

  • purposive aspect

adapted from ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PurposiveAspect

The purposive aspect appears to add the notion of intention or probability, both negative and positive. (Steckley, 2007, p. 14, about Huron) (John Steckley, 2007, Words of the Huron, Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press)

  • aspect quantificational

  • quantificational aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Quantificational, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#quantitativeAspect

A speaker may report an event as occurring once only (semelfactive) or several times (iterative); he may view it as a specific event or as part of a general habit of carrying out similar events; he may also differentiate between different degrees of frequency with which the event occurs. The markers that a given language provides for one or more of these meaning distinctions can be grouped under a subcategory called “quantificational aspect", as all of them refer to the quantitative aspect of the event concerned (Bhat 1999:53). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Quantificational)

  • aspect relevance

  • relevance aspect

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relevanceAspect

relevance aspect (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relevanceAspect)

  • aspect semelfactive

  • semelfactive aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Semelfactive

Momentaneous, without an inherent end-point, as sneeze (Michaelis 1998:xvi). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Semelfactive)

  • aspect simple

  • simple aspect

ILPOSTS, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#SimpleAspect

TODO: check whether this is properly defined

non-progressive, non-purposive aspect (for Indian languages defined by http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#SimpleAspect)

  • aspect terminative

  • terminative aspect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Terminative

Denotes the termination of an event (Bhat 1999: 92). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Terminative)

  • aspect unaccomplished

  • unaccomplished aspect

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2217

aspect that expresses an event or state that is not finished. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2217)

subClassOf aspect (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • aspect view of point

  • point of view aspect

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#viewPointAspect

point of view aspect (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#viewPointAspect)

  • atransitive

Chiarcos

A predicate/verb that takes no argument. English "to rain" is semantically atransitive, hence, an expletive is to be used in "it's raining", cf. van Valin and Lapolla (1997).

  • attribute genitive

  • genitive attribute

added in conformance to the TIGER scheme

TODO: check definition

added in conformance to the TIGER scheme

  • auxiliary be

  • be auxiliary

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1246

Verb used to link the subject of a sentence and its noun or adjective complement or complementing phrase in certain languages. This verb could be used also to form the passive voice. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=be -> 4); http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1246)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • auxiliary have

  • have auxiliary

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1299

The verb have as an auxiliary. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAuxiliaryVerb.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1299)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • bracket angle close

  • close angle bracket

PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991

> *RAB* Right angle bracket (Santorini 1991)

  • bracket angle open

  • open angle bracket

PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991

< *LAB* Left angle bracket (Santorini 1991)

  • bracket close

  • close bracket

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2083

Punctuation that is graphically represented by ] (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2083)

  • bracket curly close

  • close curly bracket

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2085

Punctuation that is graphically represented by } (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2085)

  • bracket curly open

  • open curly bracket

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2084

Punctuation that is graphically represented as { (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2084)

  • bracket open

  • open bracket

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2082

Punctuation that is represented graphically as [ (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2082)

  • bracket sentence left

  • left sentence bracket

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)

  • bracket square close

  • close square bracket

PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991

] *RSB* Right square bracket (Santorini 1991)

  • bracket square open

  • open square bracket

PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991

[ *LSB* Left square bracket (Santorini 1991)

  • bullet

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1438

Sign used to mark an item in a list. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1438)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • case abessive

  • abessive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1223

AbessiveCase expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English preposition 'without' (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3,35; Gove, et al. 1966: 3). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abessive)

  • case ablative

  • ablative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Ablative, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1224

Case used to indicate locative or instrumental function. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1224) AblativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Ablative)

  • case absolutive

  • absolutive case

TDS Ontology, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1225

Absolutive case marks the first argument of an intransitive verb and the second argument of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absolutiveCase)

  • case adessive

  • adessive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1228

AdessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location near/at which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'at' or 'near' (Crystal 1997: 8). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adessive)

  • case aditive

  • aditive case

TODO: rename to AdditiveCase

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1229

Case expressing "to" in Basque studies. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1229)

  • case allative

  • allative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Allative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1236

AllativeCase expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 6,9,216; Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 1213; Gove, et al. 1966: 55,2359). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Allative)

  • case benefactive

  • benefactive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Benefactive; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1247

BenefactiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause (Crystal 1980: 43; Gove, et al. 1966: 203). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Benefactive)

  • case causative

  • causative case

Case which expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the cause of the situation expressed by the clause. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1253)

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1253

  • case comitative

  • comitative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Comitative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1255

ComitativeCase expresses accompaniment. It carries the meaning 'with' or 'accompanied by' (Anderson, Stephen 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42;Dixon, R. 1972: 12; Gove, et al. 1966: 455). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Comitative)

  • case contablative

  • contablative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contablative

ContablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from near which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from near'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contablative)

  • case contallative

  • contallative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contallative

ContallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the vicinity of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contallative)

  • case conterminative

  • conterminative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Conterminative

ConterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'moving into the vicinity of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Conterminative)

  • case contlative

  • contlative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contlative

ContlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location in the vicinity of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'in the vicinity of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Contlative)

  • case dative

  • dative case

EAGLES

Dative case marks indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist), or nouns having the role of a recipient (as of things given), a beneficiary of an action, or a possessor of an item. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsDativeCase.htm 17.11.06)

  • case delative

  • delative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Delative, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1268

DelativeCase expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 53; Gove, et al. 1966: 595). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Delative)

  • case direct

  • direct case

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DirectCase

In the Romanian case system the value 'direct' conflates 'nominative' and 'accusative', e.g., -acea/acel, -aceasta/acesta, -această/acest (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DirectCase)

  • case distributive

  • distributive case

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DistributiveCase

The distributive case is used on nouns for the meanings of per or each, e.g., Hungarian egyenként/egy, hetenként/hét, ilyenként/ily, kéthetenként/kéthét, rekordonként/rekord, tömbönként/tömb, vércsoportonként/vércsoport In Hungarian it is -nként and expresses the manner when something happens to each member of a set one by one (e.g., fejenként "per head", esetenként "in some case"), or the frequency in time (hetenként "once a week", tízpercenként "every ten minutes"). In the Finnish language, this adverb type is rare, even rarer in the singular. Its ending is -ttain/-ttäin. The basic meaning is "separately for each". For example, maa ("country") becomes maittain for an expression like Laki ratifioidaan maittain ("The law is ratified separately in each country"). It can be used to distribute the action to frequent points in time, e.g., päivä (day) has the plural distributive päivittäin (each day). It can mean also "in (or with) regard to the (cultural) perspective" when combined with a word referring to an inhabitant (-lais-). Frequently Finns (suomalaiset) say that suomalaisittain tuntuu oudolta, että, or "in the Finnish perspective, it feels strange that". (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DistributiveCase, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributive_case)

  • case elative

  • elative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Elative, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1276, note that the latter conflates ElativeDegree and ElativeCase

ElativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location out of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'out of' (Lyons 1968: 299; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 64; Crystal 1985: 106; Gove, et al. 1966: 730). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Elative)

  • case equative

  • equative case

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1279

Case that expresses likeness or identity to the referent of the noun it marks. It can have meaning, such as: 'as', 'like', or 'in the capacity of'. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1279)

  • case ergative

  • ergative case

TDS Ontology

In ergative-absolutive languages, the ergative case identifies the subject of a transitive verb. In such languages, the ergative case is typically marked (most salient), while the absolutive case is unmarked. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#ergativeCase with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_case).

  • case essive

  • essive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Essive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1281

EssiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location at which another referent exists (Lyons 1968: 299,301; Gove, et al. 1966: 778; Crystal 1985: 112; Blake 1994: 154-5). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Essive)

  • case factive

  • factive case

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FactiveCase

case category of the Hungarian MULTEXT-East scheme, e.g., amilyenné/amilyen, azzá/az, erőddé/erő, jelmezeivé/jelmez, jelükké/jel, kevéssé/kevés, Kissé/Kiss, legjelentéktelenebbekké/jelentéktelen (hu) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FactiveCase)

  • case formal

  • formal case

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FormalCase

In Hungarian, `essive-formal' is in some descriptions simply called `formal', with the affix _-képp(en)_ and meaning (`in the form of ...', they probably meant when they came up with the term). In the Hungarian MULTEXT-East scheme, essive-formal and formal are distinguished. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/15, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FormalCase)<br/>

  • case formal essive

  • essive formal case

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EssiveFormalCase

The Hungarian "formativus, or essivus-formalis `-ként' ... usually expresses a position, task and manner of the person or the thing." (Nose 2003), e.g., Hungarian 'katonaként' -> [serves] as a soldier. (Csaba Oravecz, email 2010/06/15)<br/><br/> "Haspelmath & Buchholz (1998:321) explained the function of the essive case as ``role phrases''. Role phrases represent the role of the function in which a participant appears. They regard the role phrases as adverbial." (Nose 2003, p. 117)<br/> In the Hungarian language this case combines the Essive case and the Formal case, and it can express the position, task, state (e.g. "as a tourist"), or the manner (e.g. "like a hunted animal"). The status of the suffix -ként in the declension system is disputed for several reasons. First, in general, Hungarian case suffixes are absolute word-final, while -ként permits further suffixation by the locative suffix -i. Second, most Hungarian case endings participate in vowel harmony, while -ként does not. For these reasons, many modern analyses of the Hungarian case system, starting with László Antal's "A magyar esetrendszer" (1961) do not consider the essive/formal to be a case. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essive-formal_case)<br/> cf. Masahiko Nose (2003), Adverbial Usage of the Hungarian Essive Case

  • case genitive

  • genitive case

EAGLES-recommended case feature

Genitive case signals that the referent of the marked noun is the possessor of the referent of another noun, e.g. "the man's foot". In some languages, genitive case may express an associative relation between the marked noun and another noun. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsGenitiveCase.htm 17.11.06)

  • case illative

  • illative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Illative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1303

IllativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location into which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'into' (Lyons 1968: 299; Gove, et al. 1966: 1126; Crystal 1985: 152). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Illative)

  • case inablative

  • inablative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inablative

InablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from within which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from within'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inablative)

  • case inallative

  • inallative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inallative

InallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is inside the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards in(side)'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inallative)

  • case inessive

  • inessive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1311

InessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location within which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'within' or 'inside' (Lyons 1968: 299; Gove, et al. 1966: 1156; Crystal 1985: 156). X in Y. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inessive)

  • case instrumental

  • instrumental case

TDS Ontology, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#instrumentalCase-grammatical; GOLD, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Instrumental; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1316

InstrumentalCase indicates that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Instrumental)

  • case interablative

  • interablative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interablative

InterablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from inbetween'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interablative)

  • case interallative

  • interallative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interallative

InterallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is in the middle of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the middle of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interallative)

  • case interessive

  • interessive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interessive

InteressiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'between'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interessive)

  • case interlative

  • interlative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interlative

InterlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'to the middle of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interlative)

  • case interminative

  • interminative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative

'into in(side of)'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative)

  • case interterminative

  • interterminative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative

InterterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the middle of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through it. It has the meaning 'into the middle of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interminative)

  • case intertranslative

  • intertranslative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intertranslative

IntertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory between the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the in between. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intertranslative)

  • case intranslative

  • intranslative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intranslative

IntranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving through the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along through'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intranslative)

  • case lative

  • lative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Lative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1323

LativeCase expresses 'motion up to the location of,' or 'as far as' the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 121; Gove, et al. 1966: 1277). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Lative)

  • case locational

  • locational case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Locational

Category of case that denotes that the referent of the noun it marks is a location. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Locational)

  • case locative

  • locative case

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1326

Case that indicates a final location of action or a time of the action. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1326)

  • case malefactive

  • malefactive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Malefactive

Opposite of BenefactiveCase; used when the marked noun is negatively affected in the clause. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Malefactive)

  • case multiplicative

  • multiplicative case

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultiplicativeCase

A case used in the Hungarian MULTEXT-East scheme, e.g., tizennegyedszer/tizennegyed, tucatszor/tucat, tízezredszer/tízezred (hu) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultiplicativeCase)

The multiplicative case is a grammatical case used for marking a number of something ("three times"). The case is found in the Hungarian language, for example nyolc (eight), nyolcszor (eight times). The case appears also in Finnish as an adverbial (adverb-forming) case. Used with a cardinal number it denotes the number of actions; for example, viisi (five) -> viidesti (five times). Used with adjectives it refers to the mean of the action, corresponding the English suffix -ly: kaunis (beautiful) -> kauniisti (beautifully). It is also used with a small number of nouns: leikki (play) -> leikisti (just kidding, not really). In addition, it acts as an intensifier when used with a swearword: piru -> pirusti. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplicative_case)

  • case oblique

  • oblique case

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1336; in EAGLES applied to non-subject pronouns in English and Dutch

Case that is used when a noun is the object of a verb or a proposition, except for nominative and vocative case. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1336)

  • case partitive

  • partitive case

TDS ontology; http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Partitive; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2003

The partitive case is a grammatical case which denotes "partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity". (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#partitiveCase with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partitive) PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some' (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk, et al. 1985: 249; Gove, et al. 1966: 1648; Sebeok 1946: 1214). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Partitive)

  • case perlative

  • perlative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perlative

PerlativeCase expresses that something moved 'through','across', or 'along' the referent of the noun that is marked (Blake 1998: 38, 203). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Perlative)

  • case possessed

  • possessed case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Possessed

PossessedCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is possessed by the referent of another noun. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Possessed)

  • case prepositional

  • prepositional case

Prepositional case is an in EAGLES optional value of CaseFeature for Spanish pronouns and determiners. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2v 15.11.06)

In many grammars, the term "prepositional case" is to refer to case marking that only occurs in combination with prepositions. Normally, this is an oblique case, e.g., the Russian 6th case, also referred to as "locative". (Ch. Chiarcos)

  • case prolative

  • prolative case

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1368

Case for a noun or a pronoun that expresses motion within a place or a period of time needed for an event. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1368)

  • case proprietive

  • proprietive case

TDS Ontology, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#proprietiveCase-grammatical

Proprietive case marks a possessional relation, i.e. 'having' something. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#proprietiveCase-grammatical)

  • case purposive

  • purposive case

added in accordance with the ILPOSTS tagset for a case marker (postposition) in Indian languages, cf. http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PurposiveCase

Purposive marks the goal of an activity, e.g., 'going out FOR (i.e. to catch) KANGAROOS'; 'call them FOR (i.e. to eat) FOOD'. The common purposive suffix -gu is a recurrent suffix on verbs ... The purposive case suffix is often used on a nominalised clause (and this may possibly be the origin of the verbal purposive). (Dixon 2002, p.134, on purposive case in [several] Australian languages) R.M.W. Dixon (2002), Australian Languages. CUP, Cambridge

  • case sociative

  • sociative case

adopted from http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1388

TODO: check whether this is really different from comitative

Case related to the person in whose company the action is carried out, or to any belongings of people which take part in the action. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1388)

  • case subablative

  • subablative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subablative

SubablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from under which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from under'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subablative)

  • case suballative

  • suballative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Suballative

SuballativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is under the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is under'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Suballative)

  • case subessive

  • subessive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subessive

SubessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'under' or 'beneath'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subessive)

  • case sublative

  • sublative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Sublative; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1392

SublativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent is moving toward. It has the meaning 'towards the underneath of'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Sublative)

  • case subterminative

  • subterminative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subterminative

SubterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region under the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region under'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subterminative)

  • case subtranslative

  • subtranslative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subtranslative

SubtranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory underneath the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region underneath'. Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a feature of adjectives. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subtranslative)

  • case superablative

  • superablative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superablative

Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superablative)

  • case superallative

  • superallative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superallative

SuperallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superallative)

  • case superessive

  • superessive case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superessive, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1396

SuperessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location on which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'on' or 'upon'. (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 207, Gove, et al. 1966: 2293). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superessive)

  • case superlative

  • superlative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superlative

SuperlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location onto which another referent is moving. It has the meaning of 'onto'. Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a property of adjectives. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superlative)

  • case superterminative

  • superterminative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superterminative

SuperterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region over the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Superterminative)

  • case supertranslative

  • supertranslative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Supertranslative

SupertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region over'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Supertranslative)

  • case temporalis

  • temporalis case

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#TemporalisCase

The so-called Temporalis Case is formed in Hungarian with -kor. Expresses a point of time or a period. (http://member.melbpc.org.au/~tmajlath/form-suffix.html)

  • case terminative

  • terminative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TerminativeCase, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1401

Case that indicates to what or where something ends. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1401) TerminativeCase expresses the notion of something into but not further than (ie, not through) the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'into but not through'. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TerminativeCase)

  • case translative

  • translative case

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Translative, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1406

TranslativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun, or the quality of the adjective, that it marks is the result of a process of change (Lyons 1968: 299301, Gove, et al. 1966: 813,2429, Sebeok 1946: 17, Hakulinen 1961: 70). X along, across Y. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Translative)

  • case vocative

  • vocative case

EAGLES-recommended case feature

Vocative case marks a noun whose referent is being addressed. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsVocativeCase.htm 17.11.06)

  • category morphological

  • morphological category

 
  • category morphosyntactic

  • morphosyntactic category

 
  • causative

TODO: rename to CausativeVoice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Causative, cf. Anticausative

Expressing the causation of an action. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Causative)

  • character

 
  • circumposition

EAGLES adposition with optional attribute Type="Circumposition". The relationship between circumpositions and pre-/postpositions in EAGLES is not clear. We do not prohibit Circumpositions from being Prepositions or Postpositions, though the EAGLES feature assignment (with all optional values implemented) would possibly rule this out. (Chiarcos)

A circumposition is an adposition with a part before the noun phrase and a part after. It is much less common than prepositions or postpositions. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circumposition 19.09.06)

  • class agreement numeral

  • numeral agreement class

 
  • classifier

Added for compatibility with the SFB632 annotation guidelines.

A classifier is a word or affix that expresses the classification of a noun. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAClassifier.htm 19.09.06) Classifiers are a very typical feature of sign languages. In some Asian languages, classifiers are used as particles to combine a noun with a numeral, e.g. chin. _san ge ren_ 'three pieces of people', 'three people' (Bußmann 2002, under Klassifikator) Bharati et al. (2006, for Indian languages) group Classifiers together with Quantifiers and Numerals, but they do not provide a detailed characterization of this class. Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf

  • clause

 
  • clause complement

  • complement clause

Santorini 1991

In noun phrases like the fact that she is late, the subordinate clause that she is late is a complement of the noun fact and should not be confused with a relative clause. (Note that the embedded clause she is late is not missing a constituent; by contrast, in a relative clause construction like the TV that she bought the other day, the clause that she bought the other day is incomplete.) The entire noun phrase should be bracketed as a sister of the head noun. (NP the fact (SBAR that (S (NP she) (VP is (ADJP late))))) (Santorini 1991)

  • clause conditional

  • conditional clause

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#conditionalClause

Conditional clauses refer to a hypothetical situation, in English they are introduced by 'if' or 'unless'. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#conditionalClause)

  • clause coordinate

  • coordinate clause

adopted from http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#coordinateClause

A coordinate clause is a clause belonging to a series of two or more clauses which are not syntactically dependent on one another, and are joined by means of a coordinate conjunction, a connective or parataxis. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsACoordinateClause.htm).

  • clause cosubordinate

  • cosubordinate clause

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#non-embeddedSubordinateClause Termed "cosubordination" here in accordance with van Valin and LaPolla (1997)

  • clause finite

  • finite clause

 
  • clause finite with conjunction subordinating

  • subordinating conjunction with finite clause

EAGLES

For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "weil" introduces a clause with a finite verb. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)

  • clause main

  • main clause

MainClause is the class of clauses that can stand on their own as a full, independent sentence. If a sentence contains any embedded clauses, the main clause is understood as the matrix plus the embedded clauses. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'John thinks that Mary is sick' is the main clause [Crystal 2001, 231]. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MainClause) The independent clause can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. Multiple independent clauses can be joined (usually with a comma and a coordinating conjunction) to form a compound sentence (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#mainClause with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clause).

  • clause relative

  • relative clause

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeClause

A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun. For example, the noun phrase [the man who wasn't there] contains the noun [man], which is modified by the relative clause [who wasn't there] (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeClause with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_clause and Dik 1997) There are three di erent types of relative clauses in English (be careful not to confuse relative clauses and complement clauses): (i) wh-relative clauses (a guy who(m) I know), (ii) that-relative clauses (a guy that I know), and (iii) zero relative clauses (a guy I know). (Santorini 1991)

  • clause relative reduced

  • reduced relative clause

Santorini 1991

RRC (reduced relative clause) Reduced relative clauses are adjoined to the NP they modify. (Bies et al. 1995) We will use the term \reduced relative clause" to refer to participial or adjectival constituents of the type illustrated in (@26). (26) He bought two watches designed by Paloma Picasso. Reduced relative clauses should be bracketed as adjunction structures. The structure of ( 26) is thus as in (@27). Note that the reduced relative clause, which is headed by a participle, is bracketed as a VP. (27) (S (NP He) (VP bought (NP (NP two watches) (VP designed (PP by (PNP (PNP Paloma) (PNP Picasso)))))) .) (Santorini 1991)

  • clause subordinate

  • subordinate clause

Subclassification here follows the functional subclassification of subordinate clauses in the TDS ontologies. GOLD proposes an alternative syntax-based subclassification (yet without documentation or explanation) in AdjunctSubordinate and ComplementSubordinate. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ComplementSubordinate, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjunctSubordinate)

SubordinateClause is the class of clauses that cannot stand on their own as sentences. A matrix clause combined with a subordinate clause form a main clause. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'Mary is sick' is the subordinate clause. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinateClause) Dependent clauses (which are also sometimes referred to as subordinate clauses) cannot stand alone as sentences. They usually begin with subordinating conjunctions. A sentence with an independent clause and any number of dependent clauses is referred to as a complex sentence. One with two or more independent clauses and any number of dependent clauses is referred to as a compound-complex sentence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clause, cf. http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#subordinateClause). A subordinate clause is an embedded construction which contains a finite verb form. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#finiteEmbeddedConstruction)

  • clause subordinate adverbial

  • adverbial subordinate clause

Subordinate clauses with adverbial function are annotated as ADV, e.g. "Tom sleeps when the sun rises." (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.6)

added in conformance with the SFB632 Annotation Guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007)

  • cleft it

  • it cleft

PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

-CLF (cleft) — marks it-clefts (“true” clefts) and may be added to the labels S, SINV, or SQ. See section 16 [Clefts]. (SQ-CLF Was (NP-SBJ it) (NP-PRD (NP John's) car) (SBAR (WHNP-6 0) (S (NP-SBJ you) (VP borrowed (NP *T*-6)))) ?) (Bies et al. 1995) S-CLF (it-cleft or “true” cleft) Declarative it-clefts are labeled S-CLF, expletive it is tagged as the surface subject (-SBJ), the SBAR is attached at VP-level, and a trace is coindexed to the wh-complementizer of the clefted portion. (See section 16 [Clefts] for more information.) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • clitic

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903 (cliticness), http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Cliticness

Categorization of the different types of clitics (MultText-East; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903)

  • clitic bound

  • bound clitic

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1933 (bound as value of cliticness http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1933), originally from MULTEXT-East, see http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#BoundClitic, but note that as it is used in MULTEXT-East, BoundClitic is ambiguous between "being" a bound clitic and "containing a bound clitic". Here, only the first aspect is preserved, is is thus a subclass of CliticElement.

Linked to a particular element. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1933)

subClassOf cliticness (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • clitic demanding element

  • element demanding clitic

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DemandingClitic

Expression representing a lexeme with cliticization whose clitics are, however, represented as a separate token

  • clitic with element

  • element with clitic

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ElementWithClitic"

Expression representing a lexeme together with its clitics (Chiarcos)

  • clitic without element

  • element without clitic

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ElementWithoutClitic"

Expression representing a lexeme without any clitics (i.e. because of the absence of cliticization or because the clitic is represented separately) (Chiarcos)

  • cliticization

http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Cliticization; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903 (cliticness), http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Cliticness. Note that Cliticization covers only one aspect of the original MULTEXT-East (and ISOcat) definitions of cliticness, i.e., that an element is a clitic

In morphosyntax, cliticization is a process by which a complex word is formed by attaching a clitic to a fully inflected word. Exsmple: In Je t'aime, t' is the clitic attached to aime. (http://www.glottopedia.de/index.php/Cliticization) Note that cliticization can also be understood as the process of an independent word developing into a clitic. This is not the meaning intended here, as the OLiA ontologies are currently not applied to the description of diachronic processes. (Chiarcos)

  • collective

Normally realized by derivation rather than inflection, unless other evidence is provided, OLiA follows *both* the modelling of EAGLES (Collective rdf:type Number) and the modelling of the MTE ontology (Collective rdf:type MorphologicalDerivation, cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Collective)

  • collocation

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Collocation

A collocation is any habitually linked group of words - a kind of lexical partnership, e.g. 'fish and chips', 'salt and pepper', 'don't mention it', 'it's nothing...', 'Oh well!', 'bangers and mash'... and so on. Many idioms or idiomatic phrases exhibit collocation, e.g. in a jiffy. (http://www.englishbiz.co.uk/grammar/main_files/definitionsa-m.htm)

  • colon

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1439

Sign with two vertical points that is used in writing and printing to introduce an explanation, example or quotation. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1439)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • colon semi

  • semi colon

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1446

Sign (;) usually used to separate phrases. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1446)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • comma

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1448

Mark (,) used in writing to show a short pause or to separate items in a list. (Longman DCE 2005; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1448)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • comma inverted

  • inverted comma

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1443, used as left-parenthetical punctuation in German single quotes

Inverted comma. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1443)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • comparative

EAGLES, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1421

The comparative is the form of an adjective or adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person, thing, or other entity has a property or quality greater or less in extent than that of another. In English the structure of a comparative consists normally of the positive form of the adjective or adverb, plus the suffix -er, or (especially in the case of longer words) the modifier "more" (or "less") before the adjective or adverb. The form is usually completed by "than" and the noun which is being compared, e.g. "he is taller than his father is", or "the village is less picturesque than the town near by is". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative 17.11.06)

  • comparative with

  • with comparative

EAGLES

For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "als" is followed by various kinds of comparative clause (including clauses without finite verbs). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)

  • comparative with conjunction subordinating

  • subordinating conjunction with comparative

EAGLES

For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "als" is followed by various kinds of comparative clause (including clauses without finite verbs). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)

  • complement syntactic

  • syntactic complement

A complement is a phrase that fits a particular slot in the syntax requirements of a parent phrase (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complement_%28linguistics%29). An additional (morpho)syntactic constituent that may be subcategorized for by the predicate. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticComplement)

The complement is attached inside the VP, NP, ADJP, or PP. Verbs: The term “complement” as it is used here refers to: 1. internal arguments such as NP objects, S and SBAR with no adverbial dash tags (including some if-clauses, as in I wonder if the Cubs are winning), and quoted constituents (including SINV and FRAG) 2. the passive logical-subject by-phrase 3. VP 4. constituents tagged -BNF, -CLR, -DTV, -PRD, and -PUT (S (NP-SBJ-1 the guide) (VP was (VP given (NP *-1) (PP-DTV to (NP Arthur)) (PP by (NP-LGS Ford))))) Nouns: Since it is difficult to consistently annotate an argument/adjunct distinction, all PP modifiers of nouns are Chomsky-adjoined to the NP: (NP (NP a teacher) (PP of (NP chemistry))) Adjectives: Except in comparatives, any modifier following an adjective is bracketed as a complement. (ADJP eager/likely/ready (S to believe anything)) Prepositions: The NP or S complement of a preposition is placed inside the PP. (Bies et al. 1995)

according to the PennTreebank definition (Bies et al. 1995), arguments are complements

  • complementizer zero

  • zero complementizer

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991)

0|Zero represents a zero complementizer (= subordinating conjunction); it may need to be deleted. The zero complementizer is generally the counterpart of the overt complementizer that. Example: Iâ ¹m sure 0 heâ ¹ll be here any minute. ... 0 stands in for overt subordinating conjunctions like that in tensed subordinate clauses, including relative clauses. So the relative clause the man I saw should be bracketed as follows: (NP (NP the man) (SBAR 0 (S (NP I) (VP saw) (NP T))))) (Santorini 1991)

  • complex verbal

  • verbal complex

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13) The Verbkomplex is a sequence of verb forms. In verb-second and verb-first clauses it consists of one or more non-finite elements or - depending on the verb - of a separable prefix. In verb-final clauses it also contains the finite verb. The rule for the linear order in general is: right determines left. If there is a finite verb in the verb complex, it is usually the right-most element. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.15)

  • conjugated

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2207

Property of a verbal form when inflected (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2207)

  • conjunct

TIGER edge label CJ

TIGER edge label CJ

  • conjunct sentence has

  • has sentence conjunct

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SentenceCoordinatingConjunction

  • conjunct word has

  • has word conjunct

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#WordCoordinatingConjunction

  • conjunct has

  • has conjunct

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType

  • conjunction

EAGLES top-level concept Conjunction (C).

A conjunction is a word that syntactically links words or larger constituents, and expresses a semantic relationship between them. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAConjunction.htm 19.09.06)

  • conjunction coordinating

  • coordinating conjunction

 
  • conjunction coordinating correlative

  • correlative coordinating conjunction

EAGLES, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction

Conjunction/Coord_Type="correlat" (Romanian). In Romanian, there are three kinds of conjunctions depending on their usage: as such or together with other conjunctions or adverbs: (1) simple, between conjuncts: Ion ori Maria (John or Mary); (2) repetitive, before each conjunct: fie Ion fie Maria fie... (either John or Mary or...) (3) correlative, before a conjoined phrase, it requires specific coordinators between conjuncts: atât mama cât şi tata (both mother and father). (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction)

When the same word is also placed before the first conjunct, as in French "ou...ou...", the former occurrence is given the Correlative value and the latter the Simple value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

  • conjunction coordinating initial

  • initial coordinating conjunction

EAGLES

When two distinct words occur, as in German "weder...noch...", then the first is given the Initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

  • conjunction coordinating initial non

  • non initial coordinating conjunction

EAGLES

When two distinct words occur, as in German weder...noch..., then the second is given the Non-initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

  • conjunction coordinating repetitive

  • repetitive coordinating conjunction

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RepetitiveCoordinatingConjunction

Conjunction/Coord_Type="repetit" (Romanian). In Romanian, there are three kinds of conjunctions depending on their usage: as such or together with other conjunctions or adverbs: (1) simple, between conjuncts: Ion ori Maria (John or Mary); (2) repetitive, before each conjunct: fie Ion fie Maria fie... (either John or Mary or...) (3) correlative, before a conjoined phrase, it requires specific coordinators between conjuncts: atât mama cât şi tata (both mother and father). (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RepetitiveCoordinatingConjunction)

  • conjunction coordinating simple

  • simple coordinating conjunction

EAGLES, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SimpleCoordinatingConjunction

Simple applies to the regular type of coordinator occurring between conjuncts: German und, for example. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

In the Romanian MTE v4 specs, Conjunction/Coord_Type="simple" is defined in contrast to repetitive and correlative coordinating conjunctions. In Romanian, there are three kinds of conjunctions depending on their usage: as such or together with other conjunctions or adverbs: (1) simple, between conjuncts: Ion ori Maria (John or Mary); (2) repetitive, before each conjunct: fie Ion fie Maria fie... (either John or Mary or...) (3) correlative, before a conjoined phrase, it requires specific coordinators between conjuncts: atât mama cât şi tata (both mother and father). (MTE v4), e.g., aşa_că, va_să_zică (ro) (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SimpleCoordinatingConjunction)

  • conjunction subordinating

  • subordinating conjunction

EAGLES Conjunction with Type="Subordinating". The language- (German-) specific EAGLES feature "subord-type" was originally modelled as MorphosyntacticFeature, when integrating the MULTEXT-East ontology, it was remodelled within the taxonomy

Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_conjunction 19.09.06)

  • constituent

http://www.linguistics-ontology.org/gold/2008/SyntacticConstruction

Constituents correspond to a GOLD SyntacticConstruction: SyntacticConstruction is the class of grammar units that have syntactic structure, i.e., consisting of more than one syntactic word or construction in a syntactic configuration. [Crystal 1980, 85-86]. (http://www.linguistics-ontology.org/gold/2008) Corresponds to units of annotation in the EAGLES recommendations for syntactic annotation (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node29.html#SECTION00052000000000000000)

  • constituent adnominal

  • adnominal constituent

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#nominalModifier

TODO: rename to AdnominalModifier

Each element in a construction is called adnominal that modifies a nominal, such as, all types of attributives, such as adjectives, possessives, prepositional attributes and relative clauses, such as the beautiful house; the neighbour’s house, the house at the sea, the house, that I want. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#nominalModifier)

Adnominal wird jedes Element in einer Konstruktion bezeichnet, das der Modifizierung eines Nomens dient, d.h. alle Formen von Attributen wie Adjektive, Genitivattribute, PrÃ¤positionalattribute, RelativsÃ¤tze. Zum Beispiel, das schÃ¶ne Haus; das Haus des Nachbars; das Haus am See; das Haus, das ich mir schon immer gewÃ¼nscht habe. (http://www.uni-trier.de/uni/fb2/ldv/ldv_wiki/index.php/Adnominal)

  • construction embedded finite non

  • non finite embedded construction

An embedded construction which contains a non-finite verb form (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#non-finiteEmbeddedConstruction with reference to Dik 1997)

  • construction syntactic

  • syntactic construction

 
  • contraction

Uby POS, undocumented, http://purl.org/olia/ubyPos.owl

no definition given

  • coordination

As has already been shown in some of the preceding examples, the issue of coordination necessarily arises: how is coordination to be represented in terms of constituency? Different approaches have been taken, and in the example analyses given in this document, we have chosen to take a traditional approach, showing the coordinated constituents at the same level, with the conjunction between them (see also 47 and 48): (51) [NP [NP John NP] and [NP Mary NP] NP] (52) She went [PP [PP to the library PP] or [PP to the cafeteria PP] PP] (53) He works [ADVP [ADVP very slowly ADVP] but [ADVP very meticulously ADVP] ADVP] However, in practice, in an automated parsing system, this is not an easy differentiation to make, and in some existing schemes, a slightly less satisfactory solution has been found, viz. analysing coordination in a similar fashion to subordination. Most constituents (both phrases and clauses) can be coordinated, but the extent to which this is possible will differ across languages. The conjuncts may be marked as such by separate descriptors: NPtex2html_wrap_inline4084 etc. However, there are many occasions where the conjuncts are not of the same formal category, or where they do not correspond to an entire phrasal or clausal constituent. There is much to be said, in these cases, or perhaps for all cases of coordination, for the use of a generalised label applied to all coordinate constituents or conjuncts, e.g. the label CO used in the TOSCA system. We do not offer a definitive solution for the annotation of coordination, and the many variants of coordination will not be considered further in this report. See Sampson (1995: 310f) for a detailed treatment. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node37.html)

  • copula

Adopted from the SFB632 annotation guidelines. In EAGLES, copulas are not distinguished from auxiliaries, hence represented as such here.

A copula is an intransitivity verb which links a subject to a noun phrase, an adjective or an other constituent which expresses the predicate. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACopula.htm 19.09.06)

  • correlate expletive

  • expletive correlate

Three different expletive usages [of the German expletive pronoun es] are traditionally distinguished: formal subject or object (expletive argument), correlate of an extraposed clausal argument (expletive correlate), and Vorfeld-es (structural expletive) (cf. (Eisenberg 1999 2001), (Pütz 1986)). (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.60) Extraposed clausal arguments: "Aber [es] ist übertrieben zu sagen, damit bekäme die FU erst eine Identität." (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.62)

TüBa-D/Z

  • correlative

EAGLES

When the same word is also placed before the first conjunct, as in French "ou...ou...", the former occurrence is given the Correlative value and the latter the Simple value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

  • countable

EAGLES, remodelling of MassNoun vs. CommonNoun

A countable noun (also count noun) is a noun which can be modified by a numeral and occur in both singular and plural form, as well as co-occurring with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, most, etc.. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countable_noun 19.09.06)

  • definite

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#definite, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2004

Value referring to the capacity of identification of an entity. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2004) An entity is specified as definite when it refers to a particularized individual of the species denoted by the noun. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#definite) Definite noun phrases are used to refer to entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definiteness 20.11.06)

  • degree elative

  • elative degree

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ElativeDegree, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1276, note that the latter conflates ElativeDegree and ElativeCase

MULTEXT-East Degree="elative" (Adjective: Resian, Serbian, Macedonian)<br/> In Semitic languages, ElativeDegree refers to the “adjective of superiority.” In some languages such as Arabic, the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an adjective are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme.” The elative of كبير (kabí:r, "big") is أكبر (’ákbar, “bigger/biggest”, “greater/greatest”). (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/elative) In Slavic languages, as well, it is pretty standard. I do agree with the definition though, that "the elative conveys the notion of “greatest”, “supreme.”" So, Slovene "lep" is beautiful, "prelep" is very (or supremely) beautiful; I guess the "pre-" prefix could be roughly translated as "over-". Used in Resian, Serbian, Macedonian. In Slovenian, we banished it, as even "ordinary" degrees are borderline inflection / derivation, but, I think, elative is is definitely not inflection. (Tomaž Erjavec, email 2010/06/21)

e.g., predivan, prekasan, premanjeg/premali, premanjega/premali, premanjem/premali, premanjemu/premali, premanji/premali (sr)

e.g., прешпионска/шпионски, прешпионскава/шпионски, прешпионскана/шпионски, прешпионската/шпионски, прешпионски/шпионски, прешпионскиве/шпионски, прешпионскине/шпионски, прешпионскиов/шпионски, прешпионскион/шпионски (mk)

  • derivation

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1271

Change in the form of a linguistic unit, usually modification in the base/root or affixation to create a new word. (Sue Ellen Wright + Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1271)

  • determiner

introduced AttributivePronoun as subclass of Determiner (Article is no AttributivePronoun)

EAGLES PronounOrDeterminer with category="Determiner"

Note that "Determiner" in OLiA also covers determiner-like elements in languages without grammaticalized determiner category. This is because AttributePronoun is defined as being in the intersection of Determiner and Pronoun. In languages without grammaticalized determiners, attributive pronouns are, howevetr, not characterized as determiners, but rather as adjectives. In order to provide a uniform modeling of attributive pronouns, they are defined here as being the intersection of Determiner and Pronoun. (Chiarcos)

A determiner is a noun modifier that expresses the reference of a noun or noun phrase in the context, including quantity, rather than attributes expressed by adjectives. This part of speech is defined in some languages, such as in English, as it is distinct from adjectives grammatically, though most English dictionaries still identify the determiners as adjectives. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determiner 19.09.06)

  • determiner demonstrative

  • demonstrative determiner

EAGLES Determiner with DetType="Demonstrative".

Demonstratives are deictic expressions (they depend on an external frame of reference) which indicate entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. Demonstratives are usually employed for spatial deixis (using the context of the physical surroundings), but in many languages they double as discourse deictics, referring not to concrete objects but to words, phrases and propositions mentioned in speech. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonstrative 19.09.06)

  • determiner emphatic

  • emphatic determiner

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer

Determiner/Type="emphatic" (Romanian)<br/> In Romanian, there are specific forms for the so-called emphatic determiner, which may accompany both a noun and a personal pronoun: fata însăşi (the girl herself), also ea însăşi (she herself). e.g., însele/însumi, însemi/însumi, însene/însumi, însevă/însumi, înseşi/însumi, înseţi/însumi, însumi, însuşi/însumi, însuţi/însumi (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer)

  • determiner exclamatory

  • exclamatory determiner

EAGLES Determiner with optional attribute WhType="Exclamatory"

A exclamatory determiner is used in combination with a Nominal Phrase in order to create an exclamation (a more emphatic form of statement), e.g. "What a lovely colour!", "What a wonderful day this is!" (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/pub/eagles/lexicons/elm_en.ps.gz, p.27, 07.05.07; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_(linguistics), 07.05.07)

  • determiner indefinite

  • indefinite determiner

EAGLES Determiner with DetType="Indefinite"

An indefinite determiner is a determiner that expresses a referent's indefinite number or amount, i.e. "some", "any", "many". (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuantifier.htm 22.09.06) Note that here, a separate top-level class Quantifier has been introduced that covers expressions of number and amount as *semantic* concepts. Plural indefinite determiners are thus to be modeled as IndefiniteDeteriner and Quantifier.

  • determiner interrogative

  • interrogative determiner

 
  • determiner negative

  • negative determiner

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeDeterminer

Determiner/Type="negative" (Romanian)<br/> In Romanian the negative determiner is expressed by the unit nici + indefinite article (e.g. nici un, nici o). (MTE v4) e.g., nici-o/nici_un, nici_o/nici_un, nici_un, nici_unei/nici_un, nici_unii/nici_un, nici_unor/nici_un, nici_unui/nici_un (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeDeterminer)

  • determiner or pronoun

  • pronoun or determiner

EAGLES top-level category PronounOrDeterminer (PD). The existence of this class is, however, controversial. In EAGLES, it has been introduced for reasons of lexical ambiguity in European languages thus it could be described by the joint of Pronoun and Determiner rather than as an independent class. Indeed, at least one fundamental difference is blurred here: Determiners are purely modifiers whereas pronouns contribute independent meaning. This could be adopted here as a criterion for higher-level organization of the OLiA Reference Model. The original EAGLES definition is not very specific about the difference between Pronouns and Determiners. Here, we assume two definitions: * semantic definition of pronouns: Pronouns are bound variables. They are referential. * syntactic definition of determiners: Determiners turn nominal expressions (of type <e,t>) into noun phrases (of type <e>). Note that these definitions are not exclusive (which is why annotation schemes differ in this aspect). Attributive possessive pronouns ('my book', 'their article') are semantically pronouns (they have an independent reference), but syntactically determiners. For the sub-classes, no exclusivity is required as Olia allows a hybrid ("both") category by multiple inheritance.

The parts of speech Pronoun, Determiner and Article heavily overlap in their formal and functional characteristics, and different analyses for different languages entail separating them out in different ways. In Eagles, Pronouns and Determiners are placed in one `super-category'. For some descriptions it may be thought best to treat them as totally different parts of speech. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recp 19.09.06)

  • determiner partitive

  • partitive determiner

EAGLES Determiner with DetType="Partitive".

TODO: Check the relationship between PartitiveDeterminer and PartitiveCase: The partitive case is a grammatical case which denotes "partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity" (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#partitiveCase, with reference to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partitive). PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some'. (GOLD, "Partitive"; see there for references)

A partitive determiner indicates an indefinite quantity of a mass noun; there is no partitive article in English, though the words some or any often have that function. (Wilson and Leech 1996)

  • determiner possessive

  • possessive determiner

EAGLES Determiner with DetType="Possessive".

A possessive determiner is a part of speech that modifies a noun by attributing ownership to someone or something. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Possessive_adjective 19.09.06)

  • determiner reflexive

  • reflexive determiner

 
  • determiner relative

  • relative determiner

 
  • determiner uniquitive

  • uniquitive determiner

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#UniquitiveDeterminer

Determiner/Type="exceptional" is applied to the Persian uniquitive determiner تنها i.e., "the only" (MTE v4; Hamidreza Kobdani, email 2010/06/15, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#UniquitiveDeterminer)

  • diacritic

 
  • diminuitive

A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. It is the opposite of an augmentative. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diminutive)

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Diminuitive, in MTE v.4 originally modelled as an aspect of Degree, but this is a misplacement. There are languages where Degree and Diminuitivity are independent. In Latvian, for example, the diminutive suffix may be attached to an adjective, not only in the positive but in the comparative and superlative degrees (Ruke-Dravina 1953). Velta Ruke-Dravina (1953), Adjectival Diminuitives in Latvian. The Slavonic and East European Review 31(77): 452-465

  • distal

added in accordance with http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticDistalDeterminer

The referent denoted by a distal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English that) is usually spatially more remote or discoursally less salient as compared to a referent denoted by a proximal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English this) (Chiarcos)

  • ditransitive

SUSANNE (Sampson 1995)

A predicate/verb that takes two arguments, e.g., English "to give", cf. van Valin and Lapolla (1997).

  • dual

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1879

Form used in some languages to designate two persons or things. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1879)

subClassOf grammaticalNumber (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • element clitic

  • clitic element

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1903 (cliticness), http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Cliticness

Note that Clitic covers only one aspect of the original MULTEXT-East (and ISOcat) definitions of cliticness, i.e., that an element is a clitic

  • element layout

  • layout element

Introduced to account for Bullet http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1438

  • element null

  • null element

 
  • elision

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1277

The omission of a syllable or vowel at the beginning or end of a word, esp. when a word ending with a vowel is next to one beginning with a vowel. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=elision; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1277)

  • ellipsis

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

*?* â ´ placeholder for ellipsed material ... *?* is now available in the following great-tasting flavors: (VP *?*), (ADJP-PRD *?*), (PP-PRD *), (NP *?*), (S *?*), (SBAR *?*). These act as placeholders for a missing predicate or piece thereof, especially in comparative constructions and other environments where predicate deletion occurs. Although the missing material represented by *?* is often identical to another constituent in the same sentence, the two are never coindexed. Postmodifiers of the verb (including traces) may be attached under (VP *?*), but not to any other null element, including the other *?* null elements and (VP *T*). Note that policy for *?* was never finalized, so its use varies to some extent. In general, *?* is used by the annotators as a last resort (short of the FRAG analysis) for the annotation of clauses with â ¼missingâ ½ material. Nonetheless, there are certain constructions that are particularly likely to contain *?*: (Bies et al. 1995)

  • emphatic

added in accordance with ILPOSTS, cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticPronoun, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1941 (emphatic pronoun)

Pronoun marked to show its importance. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1941) In Romanian, the so-called emphatic determiner may accompany both a noun and a personal pronoun: fata *însăşi* (the girl *herself*), also ea *însăşi* (she *herself*). (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer) Emphasis can not only be expressed on nouns and pronouns, but also at verbs, adverbs, adpositions, etc., cf. http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Emphasis

  • emphatic non

  • non emphatic

added in accordance with ILPOSTS, cf. http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticDeterminer, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#EmphaticPronoun

In languages where emphasis can be grammatically marked, the unmarked form would be considered NonEmphatic, see #Emphatic

  • entity discourse

  • discourse entity

 
  • entity named

  • named entity

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2275

segment of text for which one or many rigid designators stands for the referent (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2275)

  • entity orthographic

  • orthographic entity

 
  • exclusive

 
  • exclusive first

  • first exclusive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstExclusive, modelled as a subconcept of First here

Refers to the speaker and one or more nonparticipants, but not hearer(s). Contrasts with FirstPersonInclusive (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstExclusive)

  • expletive

 
  • expletive structural

  • structural expletive

Three different expletive usages [of the German expletive pronoun es] are traditionally distinguished: formal subject or object (expletive argument), correlate of an extraposed clausal argument (expletive correlate), and Vorfeld-es (structural expletive) (cf. (Eisenberg 1999 2001), (Pütz 1986)). (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.60) In German, a purely structural dummy element ... occurs in Vorfeld position only and is not correlated with any argument of the clause. It does not agree with the verb which becomes evident if there is a plural subject in the Mittelfeld: "es zahlen ihn die Völker, deren Menschenrechte angeblich verteidigt werden." It is ungrammatical in the Mittelfeld, e.g. *". . . dass es ihn die Völker zahlen".

TüBa-D/Z

  • expression fixed

  • fixed expression

 
  • expression vocative

  • vocative expression

http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#VocativeForm

An expression referring to a person to which the utterance is addressed, e.g. Old High German "truhtin", "meistar" or "fater". The vocative expression typically occurs outside of the clause and not in an argument position selected by the predicate. (Petrova 2008, see http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl)

  • extraposition

PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995

*EXP* — Expletive (extraposition) ... In cases where a clausal subject has been extraposed and replaced by an expletive it, we use a type of pseudo-attach called *EXP*. (In the small ATIS sample included with this release, it is also used for existential there.) Use of *EXP*-attach is discussed in more detail in section 17 [It-Extraposition]. (S (NP-SBJ (NP It) (SBAR *EXP*-1)) (VP is (ADJP-PRD clear) (PP to (NP me)) (SBAR-1 that (S (NP-SBJ this message) (VP is (ADJP-PRD unclear)))))) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • familiar second

  • second familiar

EAGLES PersonalPronoun attribute Politeness="Familiar". The EAGLES attribute politeness (polite/ familiar) is limited to second-person pronouns.

In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. The feature SecondFamiliar applies to the corresponding unmarked forms for informal conversiation in such languages. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)

  • feature animacy

  • animacy feature

 
  • feature aspect

  • aspect feature

 
  • feature case

  • case feature

Skipped EAGLES case feature values Uninflected (uninformative), and NonGenitive (= complement of Genitive). As for TDS case feature values, only "grammaticalCase" has been adopted. As for GOLD case feature values, everything has been adopted, although it seems that some of these cases are actually semantic (theta) roles, i.e., "case" in the sense of Fillmore (1966), e.g., BenefactiveCase.

TODO: rename all subconcepts to ...Case

Note that also Indian case markers were included here (ILPOSTS). These are described differently, either as postpositions or as grammatical cases.

  • feature clusivity

  • clusivity feature

 
  • feature countability

  • countability feature

 
  • feature definiteness

  • definiteness feature

Skipped EAGLES "Unmarked" definiteness that was only introduced "to handle the suffixed definite article in Danish: e.g. "haven" (`the garden'); "havet" (`the sea')." (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2 16.11.06)

TODO: use this property to define Definite/IndefiniteArticle

  • feature degree

  • degree feature

 
  • feature emphasis

  • emphasis feature

in EAGLES and MULTEXT-East restricted to pronouns, in ILPOSTS applicable to many different WordClasses, hence modelled as an independent feature, cf. http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Emphasis

  • feature evaluative

  • evaluative feature

 
  • feature evidentiality

  • evidentiality feature

 
  • feature frequency and usage

  • usage and frequency feature

 
  • feature gender

  • gender feature

 
  • feature modality

  • modality feature

Mood feature pertains to grammaticalized moods (as expressed in verbal inflection), Modality refers to the underlying concept that can also be manifested by other grammatical or orthographic markers

note that Modality overlaps with SentenceType (cf. InterrogativeModality besides Question, DeclarativeModality vs. DeclarativeSentence, etc.). The main difference between both is the restriction of SentenceType to full sentences as a basis of analysis. Any updates should maintain this relationship.

  • feature mood

  • mood feature

 
  • feature number

  • number feature

TODO: extend with TDS numberProperty and GOLD NumberValue

  • feature person

  • person feature

 
  • feature polarity

  • polarity feature

 
  • feature proximity

  • proximity feature

 
  • feature reflexivity

  • reflexivity feature

TODO: integrate with VoiceFeature (as in the TDS Ontology) implementation

  • feature register

  • register feature

 
  • feature separability

  • separability feature

 
  • feature specificity

  • specificity feature

 
  • feature strength

  • strength feature

TODO: link with concept hierarchy

TODO: rename to ReductionFeature

merged with http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdjectiveFormation, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ReductionFeature: reduced vs. full inflection

  • feature tense

  • tense feature

Subclassification in absolute, relaive and absolute-relative adopted from TDS. Habitual is modelled here as Aspect, in accordance with GOLD, replaced here by NotTemporallyAnchored. Skipped TDS non-presentTense (= complement of Present), http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonFuture, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonPast, redefined Future and Past as superconcepts to cover different future and past tenses

  • feature type coord

  • coord type feature

 
  • feature type inflection

  • inflection type feature

In this category, different inflection-relevant features are assembled. Typically, inflection phenomena are language-specific and pertain to different grammatial categories; therefore, this collection is neither to be supposed exhaustive nor are the features necessarily disjoint (e.g., InflectedWithOvertMarker overlaps with StrongInflection or WeakInflection)

  • feature type reduplication

  • reduplication type feature

 
  • feature type referent

  • referent type feature

 
  • feature type sentence

  • sentence type feature

 
  • feature type subord

  • subord type feature

 
  • feature valency

  • valency feature

 
  • feature voice

  • voice feature

 
  • feminine

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#feminineGender

Feminine gender is a grammatical gender that marks nouns, articles, pronouns, etc. that have human or animal female referents, and often marks nouns that have referents that do not carry distinctions of sex. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2at 17.11.06)

  • field complementizer

  • complementizer field

The C-Feld occurs in verb-final clauses in German (exception: the conjunction als in subordinated sentences of comparison als w¨are es nie geschehen.). It is obligatorily occupied in finite verb-final clauses if there is no conjunction in the Linke Klammer. In non-finite verb-final clauses the C-position may be empty. This field can be occupied by conjunctions of sentential objects (e.g. daß, ob) or sentence initial conjunctions like um, obwohl, wenn and also by complex interrogative or relative phrases, e.g. ..., ’um wieviel Geld’ geht es dabei? / ..., ’an der’ Max Daniel Professor f¨ur Klavier ist. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.17)

  • field coordinator

  • coordinator field

The KOORD-field is the field for coordinating particles in the German clause. In contrast to the PARORD-field, it can optionally occur as the left-most element of all clause types. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.17)

  • field dislocation left

  • left dislocation field

The German Linksversetzungsfeld is a field for the left-dislocated phrase of resumptive constructions. A Linksversetzung is a pendent constituent. It can be regarded as a syntactic anticipation of a part of a sentence (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.16)

  • field final

  • final field

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)

  • field initial

  • initial field

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)

In the canonical sentence, the initial field is the first position in the sentence, hence grouped under Fronting.

  • field middle

  • middle field

In a German clause, the finite verb can appear in three different positions: verb-second, verb-initial, and verb-final. Only in verb-final clauses the verb complex consisting of the finite verb and non-finite verbal elements forms a unit. The discontinuous positioning of the verbal elements in verb-first and verb-second clauses is the traditional reason for structuring German clauses into fields. The positions of the verbal elements form the Satzklammer (sentence bracket) which divides the sentence into a Vorfeld (initial field), a Mittelfeld (middle field), and a Nachfeld (final field). The Vorfeld and the Mittelfeld are divided by the linke Satzklammer (left sentence bracket), which is the finite verb, the rechte Satzklammer (right sentence bracket) is the verb complex between the Mittelfeld and the Nachfeld. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.13)

  • field subordinator

  • subordinator field

In the German clause, the PARORD-field is the field for non-coordinating particles which optionally occur as the left-most element of a verb-second clause (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.17)

  • field topological

  • topological field

Topological fields are a descriptive formalism to describe regularities of the makro-structure of sentences, for example, in the traditional description of word order inseveral Germanic languages (e.g., German, Dutch, Danish). More recently, similar conceptions of topological fields have been further developed in the context of constructivistic grammar formalisms, e.g., Role and Reference Grammar (van Valin and LaPolla 1997).

Telljohann et al. (2009, p.13)

  • finite with

  • with finite

EAGLES

For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "weil" introduces a clause with a finite verb. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)

  • first

EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/First

First person deixis is deictic reference that refers to the speaker, or both the speaker and referents grouped with the speaker (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1288) cf. gold:First: Refers to the speaker and one or more nonparticipants, but not hearer(s). Contrasts with FirstPersonInclusive (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/First)

  • foreign

EAGLES Category Residuals with Type="ForeignWord".

A foreign word is a text word which lies outside the traditionally accepted range of grammatical classes, it occurs quite commonly in many texts and very commonly in some. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mr 19.09.06)

  • form base

  • base form

SUSANNE (Sampson 1995)

Strong inflection is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens. In traditional English tagsets, e.g., SUSANNE or the PennTreeBank tagset, surface ambiguities are normally not resolved. Uninflected forms and forms that have the same form (e.g., "be" as an imperative) are tagged as BaseForm. (Ch. Chiarcos) Since it is impractical (...) to resolve automatically the ambiguity of these six morphological functions, it is a common practice to assign a single value to the base form, or else to assign two values, one for the finite and one for the non-finite functions. Because of this, the tables below show two tagsets: one tagset representing the 6 attribute-values above, and a reduced tagset (`RTags'), which resembles most tagsets so far used for the English language in reducing the six values to two. http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/morphsyn/node150.html#SECTION00054000000000000000 BaseForm is not a characteristic of lexemes, but specific to certain forms in a complex paradigm.

  • formula

EAGLES category Residual with the attribute Type="Formula".

A formula (mathematical formulae) is a text word which lies outside the traditionally accepted range of grammatical classes, it occurs quite commonly in many texts and very commonly in some. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mr 19.09.06)

  • fraction

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FractalNumeral, http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#FractionalNumeral

Numeral/Form="fractional" (Romanian)<br/> In traditional Romanian grammars, FractionalNumeral refers to expressions like treime-one third. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FractalNumeral)

e.g., treisprezecimea/treisprezecime, treisprezecimi/treisprezecime, treisprezecimii/treisprezecime, treisprezecimile/treisprezecime, treisprezecimilor/treisprezecime, unsprezecimea/unsprezecime, unsprezecimi/unsprezecime, unsprezecimii/unsprezecime, unsprezecimile/unsprezecime (ro, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FractalNumeral)

e.g., يک‌چهارمِ/يک‌چهار يک‌پنجمِ/يک‌پنج (fa, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FractalNumeral)

  • fragment

FRAG marks those portions of text that appear to be clauses, but lack too many essential elements for the exact structure to be easily determined (e.g., answers to questions). Predicate argument structure therefore cannot be extracted from FRAGs. (Bies et al. 1995) Sentence fragments that end with sentence- nal punctuation like Not even an earthquake. should not be bracketed as S, but only with the highest appropriate label|in this case, NP. Do not attach such fragments to the preceding or following full sentence. (Santorini 1991)

PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995

  • fronting

T-CODEX (Petrova 2008, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#InitionalPosition)

Expression occurs at the left periphery of the sentence. This includes various noncanonical and canonical word order possibilities. (Note that it is not restricted here to noncanonical word order; for noncanonical fronting see subconcepts, e.g., Topicalization.) (Chiarcos)

  • function syntactic

  • syntactic function

 
  • future

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#futureTense, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Future

The future tense refers to events that have yet to happen. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future 17.11.06) The future tense refers to a tense category which places an event in the future. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#futureTense) FutureTense locates the situation in question later than the present moment (time of speaking.) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Future)

  • future close

  • close future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CloseFuture, classified as AbsoluteTense here

Adopted from GOLD. No definition given.

  • future hodiernal

  • hodiernal future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalFuture, classified as Future here

HodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' (Comrie 1985: 86; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 247). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalFuture)

  • future hodiernal post

  • post hodiernal future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PostHodiernalFuture, classified as Future here

PostHodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the span that is culturally defined as 'today' (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 247). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PostHodiernalFuture)

  • future immediate

  • immediate future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediateFuture

ImmediateFutureTense, also called 'close future', locates the situation in question shortly after the moment of utterance (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:94; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediateFuture)

  • future in future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInFuture, classified as absolute-relative tense here.

FutureInFutureTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a temporal reference point that itself is located in the future relative to the moment of utterance. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInFuture)

  • future in past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastInFuture

Locates the situation in question in the future, prior to a reference time in the future.

  • future near

  • near future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NearFuture, classified as Future here

adopted from GOLD, no definition given there (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NearFuture)

  • future remote

  • remote future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemoteFuture, classified as Future here

RemoteFutureTense locates the situation in question at a time that is considered relatively distant. It is characteristically after the span of time culturally defined as 'tomorrow' (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:94). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemoteFuture)

  • future simple

  • simple future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Future, cf. http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past

FutureTense locates the situation in question after the present moment, with no specification on the distance in time. (adapted from the definition of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past)

  • gapping

PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991)

The term "gapping" refers to a form of coordination in which the coordinated phrases after the rst are incomplete. For instance, the gapped equivalent of the full coordination structure in (@18a) is given in ( 18b). ( 18) a. Mary likes Bach and Susan likes Beethoven. b. Mary likes Bach and Susan, Beethoven. Gapped sequences like Susan, Beethoven should be labelled X. On the other hand, while coordination constructions containing gapped sequences involve coordination of unlike categories, it is clear that the entire coordination structure is a clause; hence, it should be labelled S. (Santorini 1991)

  • gender animate

  • animate gender

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Animate

One of the two grammatical genders, or classes of nouns, the other being inanimate. Membership in the animate grammatical class is largely based on meanings, in that living things, including humans, animals, spirits, trees, and most plants are included in the animate class of nouns (Valentine 2001: 114). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Animate)

  • gender common

  • common gender

EAGLES

Common is an optional attribute for nouns in EAGLES. The Common gender contrasts with Neuter in a two-gender system e.g. Danish, Dutch. This value is also used for articles, pronouns and determiners especially for Danish. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2at 17.11.06)

  • gender inanimate

  • inanimate gender

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inanimate

One of the two grammatical genders, or noun classes, of Nishnaabemwin, the other being animate. Membership in the inanimate grammatical class is largely based on meaning, in that non-living things, such as objects of manufacture and natural 'non-living' things are included in it (Valentine 2001: 114). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Inanimate)

  • gerund

EAGLES NonFiniteVerb with VerbForm="Gerund"; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2243 (gerundive)

property for a non-finite form of a verb other than the infinitive. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2243) A gerund is a kind of verbal noun that exists in some languages. In today's English, gerunds are nouns built from a verb with an '-ing' suffix. They can be used as the subject of a sentence, an object, or an object of preposition. They can also be used to complement a subject. Often, gerunds exist side-by-side with nouns that come from the same root but the gerund and the common noun have different shades of meaning. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerund, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/English:Gerund 19.09.06) The term _gerund_ is ambiguous: with respect to Latin, in whose grammatical tradition it originates, it refers to a deverbal noun, and is needed in this function for Polish as well; in descriptions of some other languages, however, it has been used for an adverbial participle. The two meanings have nothing in common, except that the English _ing_-form can translate both. (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/09) Here, it is assumed that Gerund refers only to deverbal nouns, cf. NominalNonfiniteVerb in the IIIT tagset (http://purl.org/olia/iiit.owl#NominalNonFiniteVerb)

cf. ILPOSTS NominalParticiple, for Indian languages, there in contrast with AdjectivalParticiple, AdverbialParticiple and ConditionalParticiple, but no definition provided. (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NominalParticiple)

  • head

TIGER edge label HD, definition according to Penn Treebank Bracketing Guidelines (Santorini 1991)

Heads are single words that function as the nucleus of a phrase. For instance, the head of the noun phrase John’s book is book. Book is also the head of the more complex noun phrase that interesting book that you were telling me about the other day. The head of the verb phrase telling me about the other day is telling. The head of a prepositional phrase is the preposition. (Santorini 1991)

TIGER edge label HD

  • head verbal

  • verbal head

A Verb (V) at the syntax layer is either a lexical (VLEX) or a copula verb (VCOP) at the POS layer. Modal verbs and auxiliaries are not annotated in the constituent structure. The verb and its arguments are placed at the same CSn layer. Raising and control verbs are treated like ordinary verbs. They subcategorize for a sentential complement. (Dipper et al 2007, §3.3.3)

added in conformance with the SFB632 Annotation Guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007)

  • headline

-HLN (headline) — marks headlines and datelines. Note that headlines and datelines always constitute a unit of text that is structurally independent from the following sentence. (Bies et al. 1995)

PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995

  • honorific

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2347

special form of language used when talking about those in positions of social situation (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2347)

  • honorific non second

  • second non honorific

Adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NonHonorific

TOCHECK: is SecondNonHonorific different from SecondFamiliar ?

  • honorific second

  • second honorific

Adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages, http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Honorific

TOCHECK: is SecondHonorific different from SecondPolite ?

  • human

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Human

  • hyphen

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2077

Punctuation that is graphically presented as "-". (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2077)

  • image

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2249

graphical representation (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2249)

  • imperfect

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1304

Verb tense that refers to action in the past that is incomplete or ongoing. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1304)

subClassOf grammaticalTense (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • inanimate

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1952

Perceived as not living. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1952)

subClassOf animacy (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • inclusion zu

  • zu inclusion

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1954

Inclusion of zu. (DFKI; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1954)

  • inclusive

 
  • inclusive first

  • first inclusive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstInclusive, modelled here as subconcept of First

Refers to the speaker, hearer(s) and possibly others. Contrasts with FirstPersonExclusive (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstInclusive)

  • indefinite

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indefinite

An entity is specified as indefinite when it refers to a non-particularized individual of the species denoted by the noun. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indefinite) Indefinite noun phrases are used to refer to entities which are not specific and identifiable in a given context. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definiteness 20.11.06)

  • infinite with

  • with infinite

EAGLES

For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "ohne" ("zu"...) is followed by an infinitive. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)

  • infinite with conjunction subordinating

  • subordinating conjunction with infinite

EAGLES

For example, in German the subordinating conjunction "ohne" ("zu"...) is followed by an infinitive. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node19.html#oav2u 17.11.06)

  • infinitive

EAGLES NonFiniteVerbs with VerbForm="Infinitive"

An infinitive is the base form of a verb. It is unmarked for inflectional categories such as the following: Aspect, Modality, Number, Person and Tense. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnInfinitive.htm 19.09.06)

  • infinitive embedded

  • embedded infinitive

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withInfinitiveAsHead, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#InfinitivalClause

An infinitive is the head of the embedded construction. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withInfinitiveAsHead) Infinitival relatives. See section 14 [Infinitives] for more information. (NP (NP a movie) (SBAR (WHNP-1 0) (S (NP-SBJ *) (VP to (VP see (NP *T*-1)))))) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • infix

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1313

Affix inserted in the middle of a word to change its meaning or part of speech value. (Sue Ellen Wright; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1313)

  • inflected

Chiarcos

see subclasses

  • inflection mixed

  • mixed inflection

EAGLES

German mixed inflection takes its name from the fact that it has endings from both the strong inflection and the weak inflection. The mixed inflection is used after the indefinite article "ein" and after "irgendein" e.g. "(irgend) ein kleines Kind", after "kein" or after possessive pronouns e.g. "ihr kleines Kind". (http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Adjektiv/Deklinationstyp/Gemischt.html?MenuId=Word3132 20.11.06) Mixed inflection is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens.

  • inflection nonreduced

  • nonreduced inflection

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CompoundAdjective

Nonreduced adjective inflection of Slavic languages, e.g., Czech nejubožejšími/ubohý, nejvyspělejších/vyspělý, nejvyšších/vysoký, nejvznešenějšímu/vznešený, nejvážnějšímu/vážný, nejvýznamnějších/významný, nejvýznamnějšími/významný, nejvýznamnějšímu/významný, největšími/velký (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CompoundAdjective)

  • inflection reduced

  • reduced inflection

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NominalAdjective

Reduced adjective inflection of Slavic languages, e.g., Czech e.g., brillská/brillský, neznámo/neznámý, samo/sám, samy/sám (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NominalAdjective)

  • inflection strong

  • strong inflection

EAGLES

In German (and other Germanic languages), when gender, number and case are not expressed by a determiner, the adjective takes the endings of the strong inflection. (http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Adjektiv/Deklinationstyp/Stark.html 20.11.06) Strong inflection is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens.

  • inflection weak

  • weak inflection

EAGLES

German adjectives take the endings of the weak inflection when a determiner expresses number, gender and case. The weak adjective inflection has only two endings: –e and –en. (http://www.canoo.net/services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Adjektiv/Deklinationstyp/Schwach.html 20.11.06) In other Germanic languages, similar systems exist. Weak inflection is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens.

  • initial

EAGLES

When two distinct words occur, as in German "weder...noch...", then the first is given the Initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

  • initial non

  • non initial

EAGLES

When two distinct words occur, as in German weder...noch..., then the second is given the Non-initial value. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

  • initialism

adopted from ubyPos.owl

  • interjection

EAGLES top-level category Interjection (I).

An interjection is a form, typically brief, such as one syllable or word, which is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation. It typically expresses an emotional reaction, often with respect to an accompanying sentence and may include a combination of sounds not otherwise found in the language, e.g. in English: psst; ugh; well, well (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnInterjection.htm 19.09.06)

  • intransitive

SUSANNE (Sampson 1995)

A predicate/verb that takes one argument, e.g., English "to go", cf. van Valin and Lapolla (1997).

  • inverse order word

  • word order inverse

PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

SINV|Inverted declarative sentence, i.e. one in which the subject follows the verb. See Section 5.19. (Santorini 1991) The SINV label is used for subject-auxiliary inversion in the case of negative inversion, conditional inversion, locative inversion, and some topicalizations. ... SINV â ´ Inverted declarative sentence, i.e. one in which the subject follows the tensed verb or modal. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • letter

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1889

Letter. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1889)

  • lexeme

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1325

Minimal unit of language which : has a semantic interpretation and embodies a distinct cultural concept. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsALexeme.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1325)

  • macron

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1327

Mark placed over a long vowel to mark quantity. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1327)

  • mark question

  • question mark

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1444

Sign used to express a question. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1444)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • mark question inverted

  • inverted question mark

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2088

Punctuation used in certain languages at the beginning of an interrogative sentence. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2088)

  • marker discourse

  • discourse marker

Introduced in accordance with the TIGER and TüBa-D/Z annotation schemes (syntactic edge label)

Generally, discourse markers are expressions or phrases of greeting, apologizing, thanking, short emotional utterances, and interjections. Their node label is DM. ... Typical discourse markers are: ja, nein, hallo, oh, aha, pst, nunja, gewiß, toll, nun ja, etc. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p. 136)

  • marker list

  • list marker

PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995)

LST — List marker. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • marker overt with inflected

  • inflected with overt marker

Chiarcos, motivated by BaseForm in SUSANNE (Sampson 1995) and related schemes; cf. http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#MarkedForGender

An inflected form with overt morphological marking (as opposed to the base form and lexemes that do not inflect at all).

  • masculine

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#masculineGender

Masculine gender is a grammatical gender that marks nouns, articles, pronouns, etc. having human or animal male referents, and often marks nouns having referents that do not have distinctions of sex. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsMasculineGender.htm 17.11.06)

  • middle deponent

  • deponent middle

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeponentMiddle

Action denotes physical/mental disposition of subject. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeponentMiddle)

  • middle nucleonic

  • nucleonic middle

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NucleonicMiddle

Object of action belongs to. Moves into, or moves from sphere of subject. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NucleonicMiddle)

  • middle plain

  • plain middle

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlainMiddle

Results of action occur to subject. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlainMiddle)

  • middle reciprocal

  • reciprocal middle

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReciprocalMiddle

Referents of plural subject do action to one another. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReciprocalMiddle)

  • middle reflexive

  • reflexive middle

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexiveMiddle, but the definition given there ("Subjects perform action to self") may be oversimplistic as it entails that ReflectiveMiddle is the *same* as Reflexive. In my current understanding, reflexive middle is a middle construction that makes use of grammatical devices that normally indicate reflexivity, cf. the definition of ReflexivePassive. The definition given below is a generalization that covers the original definition as well.

TODO: Check Siewierska (1988:257)

Reflexive middle makes use of grammatical devices that normally indicate reflexivity. (Ch. Chiarcos)

  • modality abilitative

  • abilitative modality

Adopted from ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#AbilitativeMood

modality expressed by AbilitativeMood: Abilitative is a mood that indicates ability, comparable to the use of "can" in English. (http://zbb.spinnwebe.com/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=34901)

  • modality actional

  • actional modality

 
  • modality admonitive

  • admonitive modality

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#admonitiveModality

Expression of warning (Bybee 1985:22) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#admonitiveModality)

  • modality causal

  • causal modality

Nowak (1996)

In Inuktitut, causality is expressed by verbal inflection. Causal mood signifies causal relationships in a sentence. (Nowak 1996, p.39) Elke Nowak (1996), Transforming the images: Ergativity and transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

  • modality conditional

  • conditional modality

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258

In Inuktitut, conditionality is expressed by verbal inflection. Conditional mood signifies conditional relationships in a sentence. (Nowak 1996, p.39) A conditional relation is a logical relation in which the illocutionary act employing one of a pair of propositions is expressed or implied to be true or in force if the other proposition is true. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAConditionalRelation.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258) Elke Nowak (1996), Transforming the images: Ergativity and transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

subClassOf verbFormMood (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • modality declarative

  • declarative modality

generalization over DeclarativeMood

Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a type of (formal) assertion (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#declarativeModality)

  • modality dubitive

  • dubitive modality

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dubitive

DubitiveMood indicates a speaker's doubt or uncertainty about a proposition (Palmer 2001). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dubitive)

  • modality imperative

  • imperative modality

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperativeModality

Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a command, request, or exhortation (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#imperativeModality)

  • modality interrogative

  • interrogative modality

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#interrogativeModality

The interrogative modality serves to indicate interrogative quality. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#interrogativeModality)

  • modality irrealis

  • irrealis modality

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality

Irrealis modality indicates the situation to which it pertains is non-actual or non-factual. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality)

  • modality irrealis conditional

  • conditional irrealis modality

ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NonReal is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood

Conditional Mood (modality) with Irrealis meaning (ILPOSTS)

  • modality optative

  • optative modality

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#optativeModality

Optative indicates that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative)

  • modality presumptive

  • presumptive modality

adopted from ILPOSTS (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PresumptiveMood) for Indian languages

The presumptive mood is used in Romanian to express presupposition or hypothesis regarding the fact denoted by the verb, as well as other more or less similar attitudes: doubt, curiosity, concern, condition, indifference, inevitability. For example, acolo s-o fi dus "he might have gone there" shows the basic presupposition use, while the following excerpt from a poem by Eminescu shows the use both in a conditional clause de-o fi "suppose it is" and in a main clause showing an attitude of submission to fate le-om duce "we would bear". De-o fi una, de-o fi alta... Ce e scris și pentru noi, Bucuroși le-om duce toate, de e pace, de-i război. Be it one, be it the other... Whatever fate we have, We will gladly go through all, be it peace or be it war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrealis_mood#Presumptive)

  • modality quotative

  • quotative modality

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Quotative, MTE VForm="quotative" (Estonian)

A quotative is grammatical device to mark reported speech in some languages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotative), e.g., in Estonian.<br/> ‘Reportedly, while he was going (in his boat), he turned over.’ Ta olevat oma paadiga ümber läinud He was_QUOTATIVE his_own boat_WITH over gone.<br/> (Estonian translation of an example given under http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuotativeEvidential.htm) (Heiki-Jaan.Kaalep, email 2010/06/22)

  • modality realis conditional

  • conditional realis modality

ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Real is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood

Conditional Mood (modality) with Realis meaning (ILPOSTS)

  • modality subjunctive

  • subjunctive modality

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subjunctive, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#subjunctiveModality

The subjunctive is the mood that is minimally marked as opposed to the indicative and that marks a clause as not directly representing an assertion of the speaker. (http://www.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/proxy.php?port=8080&file=lido/servlet/Lido_Servlet Subjunktiv 18.06.07)

  • modality timitive

  • timitive modality

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Timitive

TimitiveMood expresses that the speaker fears something expressed in what is said (Palmer 2001: 13, 22). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Timitive)

  • modifier

added in conformance with TIGER

added in conformance with TIGER, equivalent to SyntacticAdjunct, cf. definition by Dipper et al. (2007) there

  • modifier adjectival

  • adjectival modifier

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adjectivalModifier

A nominal is modified by an adjective. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adjectivalModifier)

  • modifier adverbial

  • adverbial modifier

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adverbialModifier

An adverbial modifier modifies a verb. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#adverbialModifier)

  • modifier demonstrative

  • demonstrative modifier

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#demonstrativeModifier

A nominal is modified by a demonstrative. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#demonstrativeModifier)

  • modifier nominal post

  • post nominal modifier

EAGLES, NPFunction="postmodifying", http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1945 (without restriction on nominal heads ?)

Postmodifying is a function of an adjective that can modify, describe, or qualify a preceding noun. (EAGLES) modificationType: Refers to the prenominal or postnominal positions of determiners which distinguish different forms. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1931)

  • modifier nominal pre

  • pre nominal modifier

EAGLES, NPFunction="premodifying", cf. http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1943 (preModifier, but without reference to nominal heads)

Premodifying is a function of an adjective that can modify a following noun. (EAGLES) modificationType: Refers to the prenominal or postnominal positions of determiners which distinguish different forms. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1931)

  • modifier numeral

  • numeral modifier

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#numeralModifier

A nominal is modified by a numeral. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#numeralModifier)

  • modifier rhetorical

  • rhetorical modifier

added in conformance with TIGER

added in conformance with TIGER

TODO: check definition

  • mood conditional

  • conditional mood

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258

In Inuktitut, conditionality is expressed by verbal inflection. Conditional mood signifies conditional relationships in a sentence. (Nowak 1996, p.39) A conditional relation is a logical relation in which the illocutionary act employing one of a pair of propositions is expressed or implied to be true or in force if the other proposition is true. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAConditionalRelation.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1258) Elke Nowak (1996), Transforming the images: Ergativity and transitivity in Inuktitut (Eskimo). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.

subClassOf verbFormMood (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • mood indicative

  • indicative mood

TODO: check relationship with DeclarativeMood

The indicative is the unmarked mood. It is used when no special modal nuance in the clause or sentence is intended. It is the default mood of independent declarative and often also of interrogative sentences. (http://www.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/proxy.php?port=8080&file=lido/servlet/Lido_Servlet Indikativ 18.06.07) Expression of assertion. (Bybee 1985:22) Pertaining to the mood or mode of a verb form or clause such that it predicates a stated relation of objective fact (OED). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indicativeModality)

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Indicative, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#indicativeModality

  • mood irrealis

  • irrealis mood

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality

Irrealis modality indicates the situation to which it pertains is non-actual or non-factual. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#irrealisModality)

  • mood irrealis conditional

  • conditional irrealis mood

ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#NonReal is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood

Conditional Mood (modality) with Irrealis meaning (ILPOSTS)

  • mood optative

  • optative mood

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#optativeModality

Optative indicates that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Optative)

  • mood presumptive

  • presumptive mood

adopted from ILPOSTS (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#PresumptiveMood) for Indian languages

The presumptive mood is used in Romanian to express presupposition or hypothesis regarding the fact denoted by the verb, as well as other more or less similar attitudes: doubt, curiosity, concern, condition, indifference, inevitability. For example, acolo s-o fi dus "he might have gone there" shows the basic presupposition use, while the following excerpt from a poem by Eminescu shows the use both in a conditional clause de-o fi "suppose it is" and in a main clause showing an attitude of submission to fate le-om duce "we would bear". De-o fi una, de-o fi alta... Ce e scris și pentru noi, Bucuroși le-om duce toate, de e pace, de-i război. Be it one, be it the other... Whatever fate we have, We will gladly go through all, be it peace or be it war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrealis_mood#Presumptive)

  • mood realis conditional

  • conditional realis mood

ILPOSTS (Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Real is restricted to conditional participles, hence probably a subtype of ConditionalMood

Conditional Mood (modality) with Realis meaning (ILPOSTS)

  • mood subjunctive

  • subjunctive mood

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Subjunctive, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#subjunctiveModality

The subjunctive is the mood that is minimally marked as opposed to the indicative and that marks a clause as not directly representing an assertion of the speaker. (http://www.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/proxy.php?port=8080&file=lido/servlet/Lido_Servlet Subjunktiv 18.06.07)

  • mood timitive

  • timitive mood

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Timitive

TimitiveMood expresses that the speaker fears something expressed in what is said (Palmer 2001: 13, 22). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Timitive)

  • morpheme

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1330

A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAMorpheme.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1330)

  • np of head

  • head of np

EAGLES NPFunction="head"

The HeadFunction is a function of an adjective or participle that can serve as the focus of the phrase.

  • name family

  • family name

introduced as generalization over http://purl.org/olia/ubyPos.owl#nounProperSecondName

In most European cultures, family names have been introduced into name formulas to identify a person's family, so that individuals with the same given name can be distinguished. (CC)

  • name given

  • given name

introduced as generalization over http://purl.org/olia/ubyPos.owl#nounProperFirstName

In most European cultures, a given name designates an individual person throughout her/his life span. To distinguish people with the same name but from different families, additional elements have been introduced into name formulas that identify a person's family or ancestry. (CC)

  • negated non

  • non negated

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonNegated

Non-negated verbs carry no morphological marks of negation. In Resian, negative is always marked as 'no' except for two verbs: 'nïman' / not to have, 'nïsi' / not to be. In Slovak, verbs form negative by prefix 'ne-', with the exception of the verb "byť" (E. "to be") which forms the negative in indicative by using separate particle "nie", e.g. "nie je" (is not). Here, "je" would be marked as negative, despite having positive form. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonNegated)

  • negation

denotes the negation or the absence (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1839) http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Negated: Negative="yes" encodes negative verbal word-forms in Slavic languages and Estonian. (MTE v4) In Slovak, for example, verbs form negative by prefix 'ne-', with the exception of the verb "byť" (E. "to be") which forms the negative in indicative by using separate particle "nie", e.g. "nie je" (is not). Here, Slovak "je" would be marked as negative, despite having positive form. In Resian, negative is always marked as 'n' except for two verbs: 'nïman' / not to have, 'nïsi' / not to be. (MTE v4)

  • negation with conjunction subordinating

  • subordinating conjunction with negation

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeSubordinatingConjunction

Conjunction/Sub_Type="negative" (Romanian, Serbian, Russian) In Romanian, each conjunction requires another mood, so that the diversity may be controlled by subcategorisation rules. The attribute Sub_Type distinguishes among the positive and negative conjunctions, providing means to control verbal double negation, (as in case of the negative pronouns, determiners and adverbs): nici NU am venit, nimeni NU vorbeşte, nici_un tren N-a trecut, nicăieri N-am văzut (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NegativeSubordinatingConjunction)

  • negation without conjunction subordinating

  • subordinating conjunction without negation

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PositiveSubordinatingConjunction

Conjunction/Sub_Type="negative" (Romanian, Serbian, Russian) In Romanian, each conjunction requires another mood, so that the diversity may be controlled by subcategorisation rules. The attribute Sub_Type distinguishes among the positive and negative conjunctions, providing means to control verbal double negation, (as in case of the negative pronouns, determiners and adverbs): nici NU am venit, nimeni NU vorbeşte, nici_un tren N-a trecut, nicăieri N-am văzut (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PositiveSubordinatingConjunction)

  • neuter

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#neuterGender

Neuter gender is a grammatical gender that includes those nouns, articles, pronouns, etc. having referents which do not have distinctions of sex, and often includes some which do have a natural sex distinction. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsNeuterGender.htm 17.11.06)

  • nominal

Bies et al. 1995

-NOM (nominal) — marks free (“headless”) relatives and gerunds when they act nominally. (See section 9 [WH-Phrases] for more information about free relatives, and section 13 [Gerunds and Participles] for more information about gerunds.) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • nominative

EAGLES

In nominative-accusative languages, nominative case marks clausal subjects and is applies to nouns in isolation. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsNominativeCase.htm 17.11.06)

  • nonspecific

see olia:NonspecificArticle, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun

"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf) A nonspecific pronoun refers to an unidentified or general entity (e.g., "I saw *someone*", "I saw *everyone*"). A nonspecific pronoun is not, therefore, a personal pronoun, but an indefinite one. (Andrews 2003). Andrews, Richard J. (2003), Introduction to Classical Nahuatl. University of Oklahoma Press. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985), An introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun)

  • noun

EAGLES top-level category "Noun".

A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and function as the head of a noun phrase. The word "noun" derives from the Latin 'nomen' meaning "name", and a traditional definition of nouns is that they are all and only those expressions that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, idea or an appointment. They serve as the subject or object of a verb, and the object of a preposition. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noun 19.09.06)

  • noun common

  • common noun

EAGLES Noun with Type="Common".

A common noun is a noun that signifies a non-specific member of a group. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACommonNoun.htm 19.09.06)

  • noun countable

  • countable noun

EAGLES Noun with Countability="Countable".

A countable noun (also count noun) is a noun which can be modified by a numeral and occur in both singular and plural form, as well as co-occurring with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, most, etc.. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countable_noun 19.09.06)

  • noun diminutive

  • diminutive noun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2225

diminutive noun (MIRACL LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2225)

subClassOf noun (dcif:isA); can be proper name (German Julchen from Julia, Russian Olichka from Olga) or common noun (German Blümchen from Blume "flower", Russian yozhik from yozh "hedgehock")

  • noun mass

  • mass noun

EAGLES Noun with Countability="Mass".

A mass noun (also uncountable noun or non-count noun) can't be modified by a numeral, occur in singular/plural or co-occur with the relevant kind of determiner. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_noun 19.09.06)

  • noun proper

  • proper noun

 
  • noun relation

  • relation noun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2226

relation noun (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2226)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • noun spatiotemporal

  • spatiotemporal noun

adopted from Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#SpatiotemporalNoun

NLOC Noun Location This is an entirely new tag introduced to cover an important phenomenon of Indian Languages. Words like 'Age', 'upara', 'pahele', 'bAda', etc. are used in various ways in Hindi. 1. They act as a postposition along with 'ke' e.g. ghade ke upara thAlI rakhI HE. ("pot" "on" "plate" "kept" "is") Here 'ke upara' is a post position which is the direct equivalent of the English preposition 'on'. 2. They also act as adverbs. e.g. tuma upara jAo. ("You" "up" "go") Here 'upara' is an adverbial of place. 3. These words also take post positions themselves and so in some sense behave like nouns. e.g. vaHa upara se AyA. ("He" "above" "from" "came") 4. As pointed out in 3. above, these words take postpositions and act as arguments of the verb in the sentence. And they also take a post position to join with a another noun. So in that sense also they behave like nouns. e.g. upara kA HissA ("above" "of" "portion") To tag such words one option is to tag them according to the category to which they belong in the given sentence. For example in 1. above, the word is occurring as a postposition so can be marked as a postposition. In example 2. above, it is an adverb so can be marked as an adverb and so on. But we feel that these words are more like nouns as is evident from 3. and 4. above, and also if we consider for examples, 'aage', 'upara', etc. as places which are in front, up, etc then we can tag them as nouns. But these are not pure nouns. They are nouns which indicate a location or time. These also function as adverbs or prepositions in a context. So a new tag NLOC is introduced for such words. This tag will cater to a finite set of such words. set: (Age, piche, upara, nIce, bAda, pahele) ("front", "behind", "above", "below", "before") Such words if tagged according to their syntactic function, it will hamper machine learning. So a single tag, NLOC has been devised for such words which indicate location and time. e.g., (upara, Age, pahele, bAda) (IIIT (2007), A Part of Speech Tagger for Indian Languages (POS tagger), Tagset developed at IIIT - Hyderabad after consultations with several institutions through two workshops. available under http://shiva.iiit.ac.in/SPSAL2007/iiit_tagset_guidelines.pdf)

Noun denoting spatial and temporal expressions "A tag NST has been included to cover an important phenomenon of Indian languages. Certain expressions such as 'Upara' (above/up), 'nIce' (below) 'pahale' (before), 'Age' (front) etc are content words denoting time and space. These expressions, however, are used in various ways. For example, 5.1.2.1 These words often occur as temporal or spatial arguments of a verb in a given sentence taking the appropriate vibhakti (case marker): h3. vaha Upara so rahA thA . 'he' 'upstairs' 'sleep' 'PROG' 'was' “He was sleepign upstairs”. h4. vaha pahale se kamare meM bEThA thA . 'he' 'beforehand' 'from' ' room' 'in' 'sitting' 'was' “He was sitting in the room from beforehand” h5. tuma bAhara bETho 'you' 'outside' 'sit' “You sit outside”. Apart from functioning like an argument of a verb, these elements also modify another noun taking postposition 'kA'. h6. usakA baDZA bhAI Upara ke hisse meM rahatA hE 'his' 'elder' 'brother' 'upstairs' 'of' 'portion' 'in' 'live' 'PRES' “His elder brother lives in the upper portion of the house”. 5.1.2.2 Apart from occuring as a nominal expression, they also occur as a part of a postposition along with 'ke'. For example, h7. ghaDZe ke Upara thAlI rakhI hE. 'pot' 'of' 'above' 'plate' 'kept' 'is' The plate is kept on the pot”. h8. tuma ghara ke bAhara bETho 'you' 'home' 'of' 'outside' 'sit' “You sit outside the house”. 'Upara' and 'bAhara' are parts of complex postpositions 'ke Upara' and 'ke bAhara' in (h6) and (h7) respectively which can be translated into English prepositions 'on' and 'outside'. For tagging such words, one possible option is to tag them according to their syntactic function in the given context. For example in 5.2.2 (h7) above, the word 'Upara' is occurring as part of a postposition or a relation marker. It can, therefore, be marked as a postposition. Similarly, in 5.2.1. (h3) and (h6) above, it is a noun, therefore, mark it as a noun and so on. Alternatively, since these words are more like nouns, as is evident from 5.2.1 above they can be tagged as nouns in all there occurrences. The same would apply to 'bAhAra' (outside) in examples examples (h4), (h5) and (h8). However, if we follow any of the above approaches we miss out on the fact that this class of words is slightly different from other nouns. These are nouns which indicate 'location' or 'time'. At the same time, they also function as postpositions in certain contexts. Moreover, such words, if tagged according to their syntactic function, will hamper machine learning. Considering their special status, it was considered whether to introduce a new tag, NST, for such expressions. The following five possibilities were discussed : a) Tag both (h5) & (h8) as NN b) Tag both (h5) & (h8) as NST c) Tag (h5) as NN & (h8) as NST d) Tag (h5) as NST & (h8) as PSP e) Tag (h5) as NN & (h8) as PSP After considering all the above, the decision was taken in favour of (b). The decision was primarily based on the following observations: (i) 'bAhara' in both (h5) and (h8) denotes the same expression (place expression 'outside') (ii) In both (h5) and (h8), 'bAhara' can take a vibhakti like a noun ( bAhara ko bETho, ghara ke bAhara ko bETho) (iii) If a single tag is kept for both the usages, the decision making for annotators would also be easier. Therefore, a new tag NST is introduced for such expressions. The tag NST will be used for a finite set of such words in any language. For example, Hindi has Age (front), pIche (behind), Upara (above/upstairs), nIce (below/down), bAda (after), pahale (before), andara (inside), bAhara (outside) etc." (Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf)

  • noun verbal

  • verbal noun

Missing in EAGLES, added as subclass of Verb and Noun in accordance with the SFB632 annotation guidelines: VN verbal noun (§4.3.12.2): Some of the Chadic languages have morphologically opaque verbal noun stems in the progresive aspect, i.e. it is not obvious from the morphology that we deal with a deverbal noun, instead of a verb proper. In such cases, use the tag VN.

A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. This term is applied especially to gerunds, and sometimes also to infinitives and supines. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbal_noun 19.09.06)

  • noun voice

  • voice noun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2253

noun of a voice (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2253)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • number cardinal

  • cardinal number

EAGLES Numeral with Type="Cardinal".

A cardinal numeral is a numeral of the class whose members are considered basic in form, used in counting, and used in expressing how many objects are referred to. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsACardinalNumeral.htm 19.09.06)

  • number count

  • count number

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CountNumber

MULTEXT-East feature Number="count" (Nouns in Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian), e.g., Bulgarian яка/як, язовира/язовир, яда/яд, юргана/юрган, юбилея/юбилей, ъгъла/ъгъл (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CountNumber)

  • number ordinal

  • ordinal number

EAGLES Numeral with Type="Ordinal".

An ordinal number is a number belonging to a class whose members designate positions in a sequence, e.g. in English "First", "Second", "Third". (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAOrdinalNumeral.htm 19.09.06)

  • numeral

EAGLES top-level category Numeral (NU). Modelled as subclass of Quantifier (a concept that is absent in EAGLES) in accordance with GOLD. DCR subclassification (numberBoth, numeralRoman) ignored

Subclassification combines syntactic (Ordinal/CardinalNumeral) and morphological (Fraction, ApproximateNumeral) criteria. To be resolved. In the MULTEXT-East ontology, the latter aspect is represented as http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MorphologicalFormOfNumeral

A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as an adjective or pronoun, that expresses a number, and relation to the number, such as one of the following: Quantity, Sequence, Frequency, Fraction. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsANumeral.htm 19.09.06)

  • numeral approximate

  • approximate numeral

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ApproximateNumeral

Bulgarian has Numeral/Form=approx(a), used for approximate numerals (десетина /about a ten/, стотина /about a hundred/) (Dimitrova et al. 2009, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ApproximateNumeral)

  • numeral collective

  • collective numeral

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral

Numeral/Type="collect" (Romanian)<br/> In traditional Romanian grammars, expressions like amândoi "both", toţi trei "all three" are referred to as collective numerals. (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral)

e.g., czworga/czworo, czworgiem/czworo, czworgu/czworo, czworo/czworo, dwoje/dwoje, dwojga/dwoje, dwojgiem/dwoje, dwojgu/dwoje, jedenaścioro/jedenaścioro (pl, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral)

e.g., обата, обајцата, обете, шеесетминава/шеесетмина, шеесетминана/шеесетмина, шеесетмината/шеесетмина, шеснаесетминава/шеснаесетмина, шеснаесетминана/шеснаесетмина, шеснаесетмината/шеснаесетмина (mk, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral)

e.g., dvadesetora/dvadesetoro, dvoja/dvoje, dvoje, dvoji/dvoje, dvojih/dvoje, dvojim/dvoje, oboje, tridesetora/tridesetoro, troja/troje (sr, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral)

e.g., ambelor/ambii, ambilor/ambii, amânduror/amândoi, amândurora/amândoi, câteşipatru, tuspatru (ro, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CollectiveNumeral)

  • numeral multiple

  • multiple numeral

TODO: rename to MultiplicativeNumeral

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultipleNumeral, http://purl.org/olia/urdu.owl#MultiplicativeNumeral; As "manyfold" fits Ghostwick's definition, MultipleNumeral is modelled as a subclass of Quantifier rather than Numeral. In MULTEXT-East, "Numeral" was extended to coover non-numerical quantifiers, hence the name.

A Multiple Numeral serves to define a complex whole, with respect to the number of its parts, e.g., English "twofold", "twice" or "manyfold". Used in morphosyntactic descriptions of, e.g., Romanian, Slovak and Czech. (Joseph Ghostwick [1878], English language -- Grammar, Historical, London, Longmans, Green, and Co.; http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#MultipleNumeral)

  • object direct

  • direct object

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/directObject, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1274

A direct object is a grammatical relation that exhibits a combination of certain independent syntactic properties, such as the following: the usual grammatical characteristics of the patient of typically transitive verbs; particular case marking; a particular clause position; the conditioning of an agreement affix on the verb; the capability of becoming the clause subject in passivization; the capability of reflexivization. The identification of the direct object relation may be further confirmed by finding significant overlap with similar direct object relations previously established in other languages. This may be done by analyzing correspondence between translation equivalents (Crystal 1985: 94; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155; Mish et al. 1990: 358; Comrie 1989: 66; Andrews, Avery 1985: 68,120,126; Comrie 1985a: 337). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/directObject)

  • object indirect

  • indirect object

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#R, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1310

An indirect object is a grammatical relation that is one means of expressing the semantic role of goal and other similar roles. It is proposed for languages in which the role is distinct from the direct object and the oblique object on the basis of multiple independent syntactic or morphological criteria, such as the following: (i) Having a particular case marking, commonly dative (ii) Governing an agreement affix on the verb, such as person or number (iii) Being distinct from oblique relations in that it may be relativized A noun, pronoun, or noun phrase indicating the recipient or beneficiary of the action of a verb and its direct object (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1310) Third argument of a ditransitive verb. Ditransitive recipient (Siewierska 2004:57). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#R)

  • object prepositional

  • prepositional object

Prepositional object

added in conformance with SFB632 annotation guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.4)

  • object prepositional facultative

  • facultative prepositional object

facultative (i.e. optional) prepositional object, e.g., passivized subject (von-phrase)

TüBa-D/Z edge label FOPP

  • object syntactic

  • syntactic object

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticObject

In linguistics, the object of a transitive verb is one of its core arguments, which generally represents the target of the verb's action or the undergoer of its effects. In more general terms, an object is a patient. Verbs with no object (as in the sentence "I run") are called intransitive verbs. Those which do take objects are called transitive verbs. Transitive verbs which take only one object are known as monotransitive. Ditransitive verbs have two objects, a patient and a recipient. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_%28grammar%29). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticObject) An object, traditionally defined, is either a direct object or an indirect object. An object, in some usages, is any grammatical relation other than subject (Crystal 1985: 211; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155-156; Mish et al. 1990: 814, Comrie 1989: 66). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/object)

  • object transitive

  • transitive object

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#P

Second argument of a transitive verb, transitive object (P) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#P)

  • obviative third

  • third obviative

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdObviative, modelled here as a subconcept of Third

Obviative refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way further removed from the speaker than other non-particpants. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdObviative)

  • parenthesis close

  • close parenthesis

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1440

End of a parenthesis pair. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1440)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • parenthesis open

  • open parenthesis

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1442

Beginning of a pair of parenthesis. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1442)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • participle

EAGLES NonFinite with VerbForm="Participle".

A participle is a lexical item, derived from a verb that has some of the characteristics and functions of both verbs and adjectives. In English, participles may be used as adjectives, and in non-finite forms of verbs. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAParticiple.htm 19.09.06) Non-finite form of a verb other than the infinitive that is used in many languages possibly in conjunction with an auxiliary and that functions attributively, predicatively or adverbially. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1341)

  • participle adverbial

  • adverbial participle

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdverbialParticiple

Adverb/Type="participle" is used in the Slovene MTE v4 specs, e.g., 'leže' / lying. Slovenian adverbial participles are, however, not attested for Resian. (MTE v4)(http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AdverbialParticiple)

  • participle conditional

  • conditional participle

adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages

e.g. Bengali বুঝলে (bujhle) from বোঝা (bojha) "to understand" (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E0%A6%AC%E0%A7%8B%E0%A6%9D%E0%A6%BE)

[In Bengali, t]he Conditional Participle is widely used to convey "if a certain action [pertaining to the parent verb] is done,...". The logic is: "in the case or condition of a certain action being done". Being impersonal, without regard for the doer of the action that caused the condition, it is not declined to suit number or gender. If this doer is not defined in the Bengali condition clause but needs to be stated in a natural-sounding English translation, this is identified and drawn from the second clause. For example:- Student: Teaching Truth in Bengali If you pay attention,* you will learn. manoyog kar-*le* tumi shikh-be. * [or, If attention is paid] (http://www.jaspell.co.uk/bengalicourse2007/wb149study49.pdf)

TODO: check whether this could be modelled as Participle and hasMood some ConditionalMood

  • participle embedded

  • embedded participle

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withParticipleAsHead, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#ParticipialConstruction

A participle is the head of the embedded construction. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withParticipleAsHead) Participial constructions are used as adjunct clauses in Old High German. As they lack a finite verb form they are kept separately from finite subordinate clauses. (http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#ParticipialConstruction)

  • participle past

  • past participle

introduced as a shorthand for Participle and hasTense some Past

  • participle present

  • present participle

introduced as a shorthand for Participle and hasTense some Present

  • particle

 
  • particle affirmative

  • affirmative particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1918

Particle used to express affirmation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1918)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle aspect

  • aspect particle

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AspectParticle

In the Romanian MULTEXT-East scheme, a verbal particle with Particle/Type="aspect" modifies the verbs and carries information on the verb form, i.e., on its aspect (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#AspectParticle)

  • particle comparative

  • comparative particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1922

Particle used to compare. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1922)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle conditional

  • conditional particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2230

conditional particule (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2230)

DCR subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle contrastive

  • contrastive particle

 
  • particle coordination

  • coordination particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2227

particle for coordination (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2227)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle distinctive

  • distinctive particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2228

distinctive particle (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2228)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle emphatic

  • emphatic particle

 
  • particle existential

  • existential particle

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ExistentialThere

English existential there is specified as a subtype of pronoun in MTE v4, i.e., Pronoun/Type="ex-there" (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ExistentialThere)

  • particle future

  • future particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1919, taxonomic organization (under VerbalParticle) follows http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#FutureParticle, regrouped under TenseMarkingParticle

Particle used in order to express future. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1919)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle infinitive

  • infinitive particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1896, taxonomic organization follows http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#InfinitiveParticle

Particle used to express infinitive. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1896)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle interrogative

  • interrogative particle

TODO: check relationship with interrogative adverb

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1921

Particle used to express a question. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1921)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle marking tense

  • tense marking particle

 
  • particle modal

  • modal particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1920

TOCHECK: is this definition correct ? Could it be that ModalParticle actually means "VerbalParticle marking mood" ? (Cf. ModalityMarkingAdverb)

Particle which functions as a modal. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1920)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle morphological

  • morphological particle

added in accordance with TIGER MorphologicalParticle

added in accordance with TIGER MorphologicalParticle

  • particle negative

  • negative particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1894

Particle used to express negation. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1894)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle possessive

  • possessive particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1895

Particle expressing ownship. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1895)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle preverbal

  • preverbal particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1455 (preverbalParticleLmf)

  • particle relative

  • relative particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2229

relative particle (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2229)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle subjunctive

  • subjunctive particle

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SubjunctiveParticle

In the Romanian MULTEXT-East scheme, a verbal particle with Particle/Type="future" modifies the verbs and marks the verb as being subjunctive, e.g., s-/să, să (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SubjunctiveParticle)

  • particle superlative

  • superlative particle

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1923

Particle expressing superlative degree. Superlative is the comparison between more than two entities and contrasts with comparative where only two entities are involved and positive where no comparison is implied. (Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1923)

subClassOf particle (dcif:isA)

  • particle verbal

  • verbal particle

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#VerbalParticle

A verbal particle modifies the verb and carries information on the verb form (e.g., finiteness, tense and aspect). (Dimitrova et al. 2009, Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09). In the Bulgarian MTE specs, Particle/Type=verbal(v) is used to form different type of verbal syntactical relationships, e.g. to create future tense (ще говориш), or particles like се, да. (Dimitrova et al. 2009) The Romanian MTE v4 specs provide a more fine-grained subclassification of (verbal) particles (MTE v4, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#VerbalParticle)

  • particle voice

  • voice particle

generalization over EAGLES: http://purl.org/olia/eagles.owl#MediopassiveVoiceParticle

E.g., the mediopassive (middle) voice marker se in the Portuguese EAGLES scheme. (Leech and Wilson 1996)

  • passive deletion agent

  • agent deletion passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AgentDeletionPassive

The object of the active retains its old case-marking in the passive, the subject of the active cannot appear in the passive clause, and the passive tends to be semantically active. (Givon 1988:419) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AgentDeletionPassive)

  • passive impersonal

  • impersonal passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImpersonalPassive

A Passive that alters the mapping of a nominal to the Subject relation in a basic intransitive structure (Klaiman 1991:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImpersonalPassive)

  • passive inverse non

  • non inverse passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Passive Unlike the GOLD definition, Passive is often not clearly distinguished from Inverse: According to Givón (1988), Inverse is characterized by obligatory realization of the suppressed agent, whereas the realization of the agent in a passive construction is optional (or impossible). This restrictive definition of passive does, however, conflict with the use of the term "passive" for European languages. Then, English and German "Passive" would be Inverses. Therefore, Inverse is a subconcept of Passive here. Givón's original Passive is NonInversePassive.

An agent-demoting voice construction where the realization of the demoted agent is not obligatory (against Inverse). In terminological systems that distinguish "InverseVoice" from "Passive" (e.g., Givon, 1988), this is the "Passive" concept. (Ch. Chiarcos) Associated with actions performed on the subject by an unspecified agent. (McIntosh 1984:108) Refers to the category of verb forms, typically identifies with a specific morphological marking, that encode the derived diatheses in which the agent role is not linked with a subject noun phrase (Shibatani 1995:7) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Passive)

  • passive locative

  • locative passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LocativePassive

An oblique locative nominal assumes the subject relation. (Klaiman 1991:17) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LocativePassive)

  • passive necessitative

  • necessitative passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NecessitativePassive

A passive in Irish in which the preposition "with" is used, and a semantic meaning of necessity is added. (Noonan 1994:280) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NecessitativePassive)

  • passive oblique

  • oblique passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ObliquePassive

A Passive in which a basic Oblique nominal assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration. Can include locative passives, benefactive passives and instrumental passives. (Klaiman 1991:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ObliquePassive)

  • passive personal

  • personal passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonalPassive

A Passive in which the argument mapped to Object in a basic structural configuration assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration. (Klaiman 1991:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonalPassive)

  • passive progressive

  • progressive passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProgressivePassive

A passive in Irish in which the preposition "at" is used, and a semantic meaning of progressive tense is found (Noonan 1994:280) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProgressivePassive)

  • passive reflexive

  • reflexive passive

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexivePassive

A Passive construction which contains reflexive markings. (Siewierska 1988:257) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexivePassive)

  • past

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#pastTense

The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Past_tense 17.11.06) The past tense refers to a tense category which places an event in the past. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#pastTense)

  • past hesternal

  • hesternal past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HesternalPast, classified as Past here

HesternalPastTense locates the situation in question somewhere in the span beginning with the period defined culturally as 'yesterday' and extends back through some period that is considered nonremote (Comrie 1985:87-88; Dahl 1985:126). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HesternalPast)

  • past hodiernal

  • hodiernal past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalPast, classified as Past here

HodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' (Comrie 1985:87; Dahl 1985:125-126). Contrasts with PreHodiernalPastTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalPast)

  • past hodiernal pre

  • pre hodiernal past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PreHodiernalPast, classified as absolute tense

PreHodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contrasting HodiernalPastTense. According to Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98. this category must be defined relative to a HodiernalPastTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PreHodiernalPast)

  • past immediate

  • immediate past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediatePast, classified as Past here

ImmediatePastTense locates the situation in question at a time considered very recent in relation to the moment of utterance (Comrie 1985: 87). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediatePast)

  • past in future

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInPast, classified as absolute-relative tense here

FutureInPastTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInPast)

  • past recent

  • recent past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RecentPast

RecentPastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, but by culturally and situationally defined criteria, usually within the span ranging from yesterday to a week or a few months previous (Comrie 1985:87; Dahl 1985:121-122). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RecentPast)

  • past relative

  • relative past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePast

RelativePastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contextually determined temporal reference point (Comrie 1985: 104). Also called PastPerfectTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePast)

  • past remote

  • remote past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemotePast, classified as absolute-relative here

RemotePastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, usually more than a few days ago (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:88). Subsumes notion of PreHesternalPast tense, which locates the situation in question before that of an opposing hesternal past tense. (Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemotePast)

  • past simple

  • simple past

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past

PastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, with no specification on the distance in time (Comrie 1985). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Past)

  • paucal

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1350

TODO: rename to PaucalNumber, because of the existence of PaucalQuantifier in MULTEXT-East

Number that specifies 'a few' things. (en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paucal_number; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1350)

subClassOf grammaticalNumber (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • perfect

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1351, modelled as an absolute tense here

A verb tense that refers to completed action in the past. It corresponds to three English tenses. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1351)

  • perfect future

  • future perfect

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativeFuture, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1292

RelativeFutureTense locates the situation in question after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance. Also called FuturePerfectTense (Comrie 1985:69-71). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativeFuture) A verb tense that refers to an action or state of being completed in the future. Translation into English requires the use of the auxiliary verbs will/shall have. (www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1292) A tense of verbs describing an action that will have been performed by a certain time. In English this is formed with will have or shall have plus the past participle. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=future+perfect; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1292)

  • personal

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1946

Property that refers to the person. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1946)

subClassOf referentType (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • phrase

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase

Phrase is the class of syntactic constructions that consist of one or more syntactic words, but lack the subject-predicate organization of a clause. Phrases get their grammatical characteristics according to what word occupies the head position; thus, all phrases have heads [Crystal 1980, 232-233; Pei and Gaynor 1954, 169; Pike and Pike 1982, 453]. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase)

  • phrase adjective

  • adjective phrase

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjectivePhrase

AdjectivePhrase is the class of phrases that have adjectives as heads. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjectivePhrase)

An adjective phrase may consist of an adjective, or a sequence of words in which an adjective is the head of the phrase, as shown in 47 to 50 below. (47) [NP his [ADJP surprisingly thick and hairy ADJP] wrists NP] (48) [NP some [ADJP [ADJP wholly unanticipated ADJP] but [ADJP remotely possible ADJP] ADJP] event NP] (49) [S [NP His speeches NP] [VP are [ADVP always ADVP] [ADJP too long [PP for comfort PP] ADJP] VP] S] (50) [AUX have AUX] [NP you NP] [VP found [NP something [ADJP suitable [PP for [NP your needs NP] PP] ADJP] NP] VP] ? (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node36.html)

  • phrase adverb

  • adverb phrase

An adverb phrase may consist of an adverb, or a sequence of words in which an adverb is the head of the phrase. Adverb phrases may function as adverbials, as in 41: (41) [NP Her beautiful white hat NP] [VP was [ADVP very nearly ADVP] ruined VP] or as modifiers of adjectives, as in 42: (42) [NP Il NP] [VP parle [ADVP infiniment plus couramment ADVP] VP] or noun phrases, as in 43: (43) [NP They NP] [VP let [NP me NP] [VP speak VP] [ADVP now and then ADVP] VP] or as the complement of a preposition, as in 44: (44) [ADVP Strangely enough ADVP] , [NP we NP] [VP received [NP a reply NP] [NP the next day NP] VP] Other examples: (45) [NP The book NP] [VP is [ADVP right here ADVP] VP] (46) [ADVP Como [NP resultado [PP de [NP esa trama NP] PP] NP] ADVP] [VP no se lleva [PP a cabo PP] [NP ninguna acción NP] VP] (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node35.html)

  • phrase conjunction

  • conjunction phrase

Penn bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995

Multi-word conjunction Besides the usual and, or, but, etc., certain prepositions and subordinating conjunctions can be used as coordinating conjunctions. Multi-word coordinating conjunctions are labeled CONJP (see section 7 [Coordination]). ... CONJP — Conjunction Phrase. Used to mark certain “multi-word” conjunctions, such as as well as, instead of. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • phrase determiner

  • determiner phrase

TüBa-D/Z, NOTE: not to be confused with "determiner phrase" in generative grammar, which would be a NounPhrase in most annotation frameworks

Certain pronouns serving as determiners in noun phrases may be premodified, for instance, by degree adverbs such as in German "so viele ¨Altere", "gar kein Schutz", etc. In the case of "so viele Ältere", the premodifying adverb so is attached to the indefinite pronoun viele. Together, they form a determiner phrase (DP), which is attached to the head noun Ältere on the same level: [so viele] Ältere (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.63)

  • phrase foreign

  • foreign phrase

TüBa-D/Z

Single foreign words are projected to a syntactic level assigned the node label FX, which is an universal label for any syntactic category (phrasal and sentential) in the respective foreign language. (Telljohann et al. 2009, p.44)

  • phrase headed noun

  • noun headed phrase

A NounHeadedPhrase takes a nominal as its (semantic) head. Introduced as a generalization over NounPhrase and PrepositionalPhrase for reasons of consistency with dependency parsers like Connexor where this differentiation is not made.

  • phrase noun

  • noun phrase

NounPhrase is the class of phrases that have nouns as heads. They can play the role of subject in a main clause. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NounPhrase)

At phrase level, the noun phrase is probably the least problematic of the categories to be dealt with. In general, a noun phrase will a have noun or a pronoun as its head, and included within the noun phrase are the determinative elements, any premodification, and any postmodification. The examples below, 14 to 17 show noun phrases with the head noun/pronoun in bold: (14) [NP He NP] was a tiny man (15) [NP his white shirt cuffs NP] (16) [NP his surprisingly thick and hairy wrists NP] (17) [NP some wholly unanticipated but remotely possible event of absorbing interest NP] However, noun phrases may also occur with adjectival heads, as in 18 and 19: (18) [NP The unemployed NP] have had enough (19) We've beaten [NP the best NP] or with a head which is a cardinal or ordinal number, as in 20 and 21: (20) [NP The ninth NP] is my particular favourite (21) [NP The other seven NP] continued with the trip In `pro-drop' languages, such as Spanish and Italian, pronominal Subjects are usually not expressed. Depending on the chosen type of analysis, this may require another definition of noun phrase, in order to include `empty noun phrases', in which the pronoun is not actually present, but may be inferred from the verb ending. A classic constituency test for Noun Phrases is that only whole NPs can be moved within the same sentence. In English, constituents can be preposed to achieve some effect, as in 23 (from Radford 1988: 70): (22) I can't stand your elder sister (23) Your elder sister I can't stand (though your brother's OK). Examples 24 and 25 show that it is not possible to move only part of the NP: (24) *Your elder I can't stand sister (25) *Elder sister, I can't stand your However, this test should be used with caution. It works well in English, but not always in other languages. For example, in 26 Neue Bücher is moved to the beginning of the sentence while keine is left at the end: (26) Neue Bücher habe ich keine new books have I no `I have not got any new books' (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node32.html)

  • phrase prepositional

  • prepositional phrase

A sequence of a preposition and its complement is a prepositional phrase. The complement of a preposition is usually a noun phrase (see examples 38 to 40), but may also be a clause or an adverb phrase. According to the categories recommended here, a prepositional phrase may be analysed further into preposition and noun phrase. The examples below demonstrate how this further analysis can be a recursive procedure. (38) [PP en [NP sustitucion [PP de [NP los canales correspondientes [PP de [NP 50 baudios NP] PP] NP] PP] NP] PP]. (39) [NP Fairbanks NP] [VP hummed [NP a few bars NP] VP] [PP in [NP a voice [VP made resonant [PP by [NP the very weakness [PP of [NP his chest NP] PP] NP] PP] VP] NP] PP]. (40) [PP En [NP el caso [PP de [NP un sistema mixto [PP en [NP el [CL que [VP se utilicen [NP canales [PP con [NP tres velocidades [PP de [NP modulacion NP] PP] diferentes NP] PP] NP] VP] CL] NP] PP] NP] PP] NP] PP] In a language such as Spanish, where a large proportion of the modification of nouns takes the form of a following preposition de and another noun, this recursion is extremely prevalent, as in 40. In cases where the prepositional phrase is complemented by a one word noun phrase, it may be advantageous to leave the analysis at this point, rather than continuing to analyse further by enclosing the complement (see also one-word constituents). (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node34.html#SECTION00052500000000000000)

EAGLES

  • phrase verb

  • verb phrase

VerbPhrase is the class of phrases that have verbs as heads. They can play the role of predicate in a main clause. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VerbPhrase)

This category is slightly more difficult to define, since there is disagreement over the extent of the verb phrase. In particular, should the verb phrase include only the words that are verbs, or should it also include the complements of the verb? In the examples given in this document, and in the sample texts in the appendices, we have chosen to include the complements, but it must be noted that this is an open issue, and we are in no way implying that this analysis is preferable to the alternative. The choice to be made at this level, i.e. the inclusion or exclusion of verbal complements in the Verb Phrase, is shown by the examples in 27 and 28, 27 showing the inclusion of the complement of the verb in the verb phrase and 28 excluding the complement: (27) He [VP took up [NP a clothes brush NP] VP] (28) He [VP took up VP] [NP a clothes brush NP] An advantage in the type of analysis shown in 27 is that the relative levels of the constituents can be shown to a greater extent -- i.e. complements of the verb are included in the verb phrase, while adjuncts and peripheral adverbials are left at sentence level. However, in a case where an adjunct occurs before the complement of the verb, the approaches used in 27 and 28 would cause problems, since either both the adjunct and the complement would be included as daughters of the verb phrase, or both would be daughters of the sentence, rather than keeping the complement as a daughter of the verb phrase and the adjunct as a sister of the verb phrase. These problems may be solved by an additional notation, but at some level, arbitrariness is inevitable. Regardless of the choice made over the extent of the Verb Phrase, there arises a problem of discontinuous Verb Phrases. A complex verbal construction may be discontinuous, e.g. the auxiliary and the main verb are separated in inverted constructions in English, or the main verb is positioned at the end of the sentence in German and Dutch. Such discontinuity can be avoided by having different labels and constituents for the auxiliary verb and the main verb, resulting in an analysis as shown in the Dutch example 29 below: (29) [NP Ze NP] [AUX zullen AUX] [ADVP er ADVP] [VP [NP de VN-agenda [PP voor [NP het komende jaar NP] PP] NP] behandelen VP]. and in the English interrogative inverted example 30, using the so-called `dummy auxiliary' do: (30) [AUX Do AUX] [NP they NP] [VP confide [PP in you PP] VP]? As with Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases can be identified by a constituency test. In strong constituency languages like English, the whole VP can be moved, but not part of it: compare 31 and 32: (31) Give in to blackmail, I never will (32) *Give in, I never will to blackmail However, there are languages in which constituent tests do not work. These will typically be languages with flexible word order, such as Finnish. 33 is an example of a discontinuous VP (Vilkuna 1989: 26): (33) Maailmaa nähnyt hän on. world-Part seen he is `He IS a widely-travelled person.' For Finnish, then, evidence for a VP is less convincing than it is for English, and a dependency approach seems the more natural choice. (Covington (1990) provides a parsing strategy for variable word order languages and Covington (1991) for parsing discontinuous constituents, both using a dependency syntax approach.) In Italian also, constituency tests cannot be applied. This can be shown through the distribution of VP-adverbs (e.g. completamente `completely', intenzionalmente `intentionally', attentamente `carefully') and S-adverbs (e.g. probabilmente `probably', certamente `certainly'). In English, these different classes of adverbs have a different distribution within the sentence. In contrast, in Italian, the distinct adverb classes cannot be distinguished on the basis of their distribution in the sentence. S-adverbs and VP-adverbs can occur in the same positions within the sentence, as illustrated in examples 34 to 37: (34) Attentamente/certamente, il bambino ascoltó la storia `Carefully/certainly, the child listened to the story' (35) Il bambino attentamente/certamente ascoltó la storia `The child carefully/certainly listened to the story' (36) Il bambino ascoltó attentamente/certamente la storia `The child listened carefully/certainly to the story' (37) Il bambino ascoltó la storia attentamente/certamente `The child listened to the story carefully/certainly' Thus, in Italian as well as other languages, neither the position nor the syntactic context can help to decide whether an adverb is an S-adverb or a VP-adverb; this can only be stated by considering its semantic content and the way it relates to the content of the predicate or the sentence. This situation has consequences for the success of standard VP-tests. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/segsasg1/node33.html)

  • phrase verb finite

  • finite verb phrase

TüBa-D/Z

  • phrase verb gerund

  • gerund verb phrase

Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#GerundChunk

VGNN Gerunds A verb chunk having a gerund will be annotated as VGNN. For example, h18a. sharAba ((pInA_VM))_VGNN sehata ke liye hAnikAraka hE. 'liquor' 'drinking' 'heath' 'for' 'harmful' 'is' “Drinking (liquor) is bad for health” h19a. mujhe rAta meM ((khAnA_VM))_VGNN acchA lagatA hai 'to me' 'night' 'in' 'eating' 'good' 'appeals' “I like eating at night” h20a. ((sunane_VM meM_PSP))_VGNN saba kuccha acchA lagatA hE 'listening' 'in' 'all' 'things' 'good' 'appeal' 'is' (Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf)

  • phrase verb infinitive

  • infinitive verb phrase

Ancorra, http://purl.org/olia/ancorra.owl#InfiniteVerbChunk

VGINF Infinitival Verb Chunk This tag is to mark the infinitival verb form. In Hindi, both, gerunds and infinitive forms of the verb end with a -nA suffix. Since both behave functionally in a similar manner, the distinction is not very clear. However, languages such as Bangla etc have two different forms for the two types. Examples from Bangla are given below. b8. Borabela ((snAna karA))_VGNN SorIrera pokze BAlo 'Morning' 'bath' 'do-verbal noun' 'health-gen' 'for' 'good' ‘Taking bath in the early morning is good for health” b9. bindu Borabela ((snAna karawe))_VGINF BAlobAse 'Bindu' 'morning' 'bath' 'take-inf' 'love-3pr' “Bindu likes to take bath in the early morning” In Bangla, the gerund form takes the suffix –A / -Ano, while the infinitive marker is –we. The syntactic distribution of these two forms of verbs is different. For example, the gerund form is allowed in the context of the word darakAra “necessary” while the infinitive form is not, as exemplified below: b10 Borabela ((snAna karA))_VGNN darakAra 'Morning' 'bath' 'do-verbal noun' 'necessary' “It is necessary to take bath in the early morning” b11. *Borabela ((snAna karawe))_VGINF darakAra Based on the above evidence from Bangla, the tag VGINF has been included to mark a verb chunk. (Akshar Bharati, Dipti Misra Sharma, Lakshmi Bai, Rajeev Sangal (2006), AnnCorra : Annotating Corpora. Guidelines For POS And Chunk Annotation For Indian Languages, Tech. Rep., L anguage Technologies Research Centre IIIT, Hyderabad, version of 15-12-2006, http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/tr031/posguidelines.pdf)

  • phrase verb nonfinite

  • nonfinite verb phrase

TüBa-D/Z

  • phrase whadjective

  • whadjective phrase

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

WHADJP â ´ Wh-adjective Phrase. Adjectival phrase containing a wh-adverb, as in how hot. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • phrase whadverb

  • whadverb phrase

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

WHADVP|Wh-adverb phrase. Phrasal category headed by a wh-adverb such as how or why. (Santorini 1991) WHADVP â ´ Wh-adverb Phrase. Introduces a clause with an ADVP gap. May be null (containing the 0 complementizer) or lexical, containing a wh-adverb such as how or why. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • phrase whnoun

  • whnoun phrase

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

WHNP|Wh-noun phrase. Noun phrase containing (among other things) a wh-determiner, as in which book or whose daughter, or consisting of a wh-pronoun like who. (Santorini 1991) WHNP â ´ Wh-noun Phrase. Introduces a clause with an NP gap. May be null (containing the 0 complementizer) or lexical, containing some wh-word, e.g. who, which book, whose daughter, none of which, or how many leopards. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • phrase whprepositional

  • whprepositional phrase

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

WHPP|Wh-prepositional phrase. Prepositional phrase containing a wh-determiner, as in by whatever means necessary. (Santorini 1991) WHPP â ´ Wh-prepositional Phrase. Prepositional phrase containing a wh-noun phrase (such as of which or by whose authority) that either introduces a PP gap or is contained by a WHNP. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • plural

EAGLES

Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. In English, nouns, pronouns, and demonstratives inflect for plurality. In many other languages, for example German and the various Romance languages, articles and adjectives also inflect for plurality. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plural 17.11.06)

  • plural broken

  • broken plural

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2218

Internal plural that do not have any inflection. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2218)

subClassOf plural (dcif:isA)

  • point

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1445

Sign (.) used to expresses the end of a sentence or an abbreviation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1445)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • point exclamative

  • exclamative point

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1441

Special sign (!) usually used in writing to mark exclamation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1441)

MainPunctuation, not SentenceFinalPunctuation because of the Spanish inverted exclamation point (Chiarcos)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • points suspension

  • suspension points

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1447

Sequence of three dots having the same meaning as "et cetera" (full form) or "etc" (abbreviated form). (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1447)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • polite second

  • second polite

EAGLES PersonalPronoun attribute Politeness="Polite". The EAGLES attribute politeness (polite/ familiar) is limited to second-person pronouns. In French, for example, it is possible to treat Polite simply as pragmatic values encoded through other attributes - especially person and number. In languages where there are special polite pronoun forms (e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted), the additional Politeness attribute is required. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)

In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)

  • positive

EAGLES, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1420

Value used in a comparison relationship when no comparison is involved. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1420) The Positive is the form of an adjective or adverb on which comparative and superlative are formed. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive 17.11.06)

  • possessive

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1355

Relative to the possession or association. (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=possessive; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1355)

subClassOf referentType (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • possible

 
  • postposition

EAGLES adposition with the optional attribute Type="Preposition".

A postposition is an adposition that occurs after its complement. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPostposition.htm 19.09.06)

  • predicate

The predicate is the relation between the Clause and a portion of a clause, excluding the subject, that expresses something about the subject (Crystal 1980: 280; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 182; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 173; Pike and Pike 1982: 40; Mish et al. 1990: 926; Crystal 1985: 241-242). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/predicate)

adapted from http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/predicate

Note that most predicates are also (semantic) Heads of the respective clause (cf. van Valin and Lapolla 1997, who, however, use the term "nucleus"). A syntax-centered approach on heads may, however, assign the label Head to an auxiliary. As "head" is ambiguous between a syntactic function (finite verb) and a semantic function (predicate), a direct association is avoided here.

  • predicate nominal

  • nominal predicate

A nominal predicate (noun or adjective), either with or without copula. The term nominal predicate may be used for the complements of further copulative verbs (cf. small clauses), e.g. "consider", "call", etc. (Dipper et al. 2007, §4.3.5)

added in conformance with SFB632 annotation guidelines (Dipper et al., 2007)

  • predicate question

  • question predicate

Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995

SQ â ´ Inverted yes/no question, or main clause of a wh-question, following the wh-phrase in SBARQ. (Bies et al. 1995) SQ|That part of an SBARQ that excludes the wh-word or wh-phrase. See Section 5.32. (Santorini 1991) The SBARQ label marks wh-questions (i.e., those that contain a gap and therefore require a trace). A further level of structure, SQ, contains the inverted auxiliary (if there is one) and the rest of the sentence. The inverted auxiliary in wh-questions is not labeled. ... SQ (See also section 1.2.7.) â ¢ inside SBARQ: As described above, inside wh-questions, SQ holds the subject, inverted auxiliary (if any), main verb phrase, and some adjuncts. â ¢ yes/no questions: SQ is used for yes/no questions (i.e., those with inversion but no wh-movement). ... â ¢ subject-less yes/no questions: In questions where the auxiliary and subject do not appear, the auxiliary is unlabeled and a null subject (NP-SBJ *) is used. ... Note that questions with overt subjects and auxiliaries that show declarative word order are simply labeled S. â ¢ Tag questions: Tag questions are treated as an adjunction of SQ to S. The resulting structure is labeled SQ, since the whole thing is interrogative in nature. The lower SQ is annotated to show predicate deletion; that is, an appropriate null *?* is inserted. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • predicate verbal

  • verbal predicate

The predicate of the clause is represented by a verbal lexeme. (Ch. Chiarcos)

introduced for non-nominal predicates, normally referred to as ``predicate'' (Ch. Chiarcos)

  • prefix

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1365

Affix added before a word to change its meaning or part of speech. (Sue Ellen Wright + Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1365)

  • prefix separable

  • separable prefix

TüBa-D/Z

separable verb prefix, e.g., "Auch die Vertreter der AfB [stimmten] den 86 Millionen [zu]."

  • preposition

EAGLES adposition with Type="Preposition".

A preposition is an adposition that occurs before its complement. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPreposition.htm 19.09.06)

  • preposition compound

  • compound preposition

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1934

Preposition that is a aggregation of words (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1934)

subClassOf preposition (dcif:isA)

  • preposition fused

  • fused preposition

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1901

Preposition that is the result of a morphological merge from at least two words. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1901)

subClassOf preposition (dcif:isA)

  • preposition simple

  • simple preposition

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1900

Preposition that is a pure simple word in contrast with the notion of fused preposition. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1900)

subClassOf preposition (dcif:isA)

  • present

EAGLES, http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#presentTense

Present tense refers to the moment of utterance. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#presentTense) Present tense refers to the moment of utterance. It often refers to events or states that do not merely coincide with the moment of utterance, such as those that are continuous, habitual, or lawlike. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/WhatIsPresentTense.htm 17.11.06)

  • present relative

  • relative present

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePresent

RelativePresentTense locates the situation in question simultaneously with some contextually determined temporal reference point. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePresent)

  • present still

  • still present

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StillPresent

StillPresentTense is similar to PresentTense but carries the presupposition that an event or state held before the moment of utterance. In positive declarative clauses, still present tense asserts that the event or state holds at the moment of utterance (Comrie 1985: 54; named changed from 'StillTense'). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StillPresent)

  • process morphological

  • morphological process

 
  • process phonological

  • phonological process

 
  • pronoun

 
  • pronoun abbreviated

  • abbreviated pronoun

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Pronominal

Abbreviation/Syntactic_Type="pronominal" (Romanian), e.g., d-ta/dumneata, d-tale/dumitale, d-voastră/dumneavoastră, dv./dumneavoastră, dvs./dumneavoastră (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Pronominal)

  • pronoun allusive

  • allusive pronoun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2223

pronoun that have reference to something characterized by allusions. (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2223) an invariable pronoun expressing a specific intention by means of unclear term (Khemakhem Aida, 2010-05-10 via isocat-morpho@loria.fr) examples from Arabic (Monica Monachini 2010-05-06 via isocat-morpho@loria.fr): "kam nahaituhu" (how often I forbade him, Hans Wehr), "baas Saar `amra `ashr isniin, gam (= kam) yriid paysikil" (He just turned ten, and here [how] he wants a bicycle, Georgetown University Iraqi Arabic-English Dictionary), "gam (= kam) yurguS imnil-faraH" ([how] he jumped for joy, Georgetown University Iraqi Arabic-English Dictionary)

subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA)

  • pronoun attributive

  • attributive pronoun

An attributive pronoun is a pronoun that modifies an NP.

In languages with grammaticalized determiners, attributive pronouns are determiners. In languages without grammaticalized determiners, attributive pronouns are described as adjectives. In order to provide a uniform modeling of attributive pronouns, they are defined here as being the intersection of Determiner and Pronoun. Note that this entails that the definition of "Determiner" is broadened to include determiner-like elements in languages without grammatical determiners. (Chiarcos)

  • pronoun conditional

  • conditional pronoun

check for a definition

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2222

conditional pronoun (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2222)

subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA)

  • pronoun demonstrative

  • demonstrative pronoun

EAGLES Pronoun with Pron.-Type="Demonstrative".

TODO: This definition is nonsatisfactory, cf. Ehlich (1982) for intra-textual ("anadeictic") uses of demonstratives.

Demonstrative pronouns are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference). They indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonstrative_pronoun 19.09.06)

  • pronoun determinal

  • determinal pronoun

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DeterminalPronoun

Not to be confused with pronominal determiners

The Estonian determinal pronouns _ise_, _end(a)_ `(one)self'." combine aspects of emphatic pronouns and reflexive pronouns. It could also be described as an intensifier that is formally identical with the reflexive pronoun or as an emphatic reflexive pronoun. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DeterminalPronoun; Insa Gülzow (2006), The acquisition of intensifiers: Emphatic reflexives in English and German child language, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, p. 258)

  • pronoun distributive

  • distributive pronoun

adopted from ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Distributivity is a property of Pronominals

When the subject is conjoined, the reflexive cannot refer to only one of them. The proform has to be a distributive pronoun, i.e., the reduplicated form, when it has coreference to respective subjects, e.g., *kumaarum_i/Kumar.and umaavum_j/Uma.and tan_i+j/self-poss puunekki/cat.to paalu/milk kuDuttaanaanga/give-pst-aggr. "*Kumar_i and Uma gave milk to his_i/her_j cat." (Annamalai 2000, p. 189, on Tamil) Unlike reciprocals, the two parts of a distributive pronoun cannot be considered as two full, independent NPs. In "awar/1 awar/2", only "awar/2" is case marked; "awar/1" is its citation form. Also, the two parts cannot be separated by intervening material (cf. English "one another"). (Jayaseelan 2000, p. 149, on Malayalam) (K.A. Jayaseelan, 2000, Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Malayalam, In: Barbara C. Lust, Kashi Wali, James W. Gair, K.V.Subharao (eds.), Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. A Principled Typology, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, p. 113-168) (E. Annamalai, 2000, Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Tamil, , In: Barbara C. Lust, Kashi Wali, James W. Gair, K.V.Subharao (eds.), Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. A Principled Typology, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, p. 169-216)

  • pronoun emphatic

  • emphatic pronoun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1941

Pronoun marked to show its importance. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1941)

subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA)

  • pronoun exclamatory

  • exclamatory pronoun

EAGLES WHPronoun with Wh-Type="Exclamatory".

An exclamative pronoun is a word which marks an exclamation. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnExclamative.htm 19.09.06)

  • pronoun expletive

  • expletive pronoun

Missing in the EAGLES recommendations, added in accordance with the TIGER annotation scheme (for German). As expletive pronouns often (e.g., in German or English) have the form of 3.sg personal pronouns, expletives are modelled here as subclass of ThirdPersonPronoun.

TODO: compare with GOLD, modeled as a PartOfSpeechProperty there

TODO: revise definition, the GOLD definition applies to copula, too.

An expletive (also known as a dummy word) is a part of speech whose members have no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical [Crystal 1997, 127] (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Expletive) In European languages, expletives are pronouns. A verbal part of speech that "has no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical" is a copula (see AuxiliaryVerb).

  • pronoun impersonal

  • impersonal pronoun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1426

Pronoun lacking person referent. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1426) More precisely, a form of pronoun that denotes the absence of a concrete or specific referent, e.g., German "man". As opposed to IndefinitePronoun, this referent is not just discourse-new, but generic or hypothetical.

subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA)

  • pronoun indefinite

  • indefinite pronoun

 
  • pronoun interrogative

  • interrogative pronoun

 
  • pronoun negative

  • negative pronoun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1925

Pronoun used in a context of a negation or for expressing a negation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1925)

subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA), reclassification as IndefinitePronoun follows EAGLES and STTS praxis

  • pronoun nonspecific

  • nonspecific pronoun

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun

In the Russian MTE v4 specs, Pronoun/Type="nonspecific" marks the following Russian words: весь 'all', всякий 'any, every', сам 'oneself', самый 'the very', каждый 'every, each', иной 'other', любой 'any', другой 'other'. The name "nonspecific" follows Halliday (1985, Section 6.2.1.1). (MTE v4) A nonspecific pronoun refers to an unidentified or general entity (e.g., "I saw *someone*", "I saw *everyone*"). A nonspecific pronoun is not, therefore, a personal pronoun, but an indefinite one. (Andrews 2003). Andrews, Richard J. (2003), Introduction to Classical Nahuatl. University of Oklahoma Press. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985), An introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#NonspecificPronoun)

  • pronoun person first

  • first person pronoun

EAGLES Pronoun with Person="First". As only personal and reflexive pronouns show person differentiation, FirstPersonPronoun is modelled as a subclass of PersReflConcept here.

A FirstPersonPronoun refers to the speaker, or to both the speaker and referents grouped with the speaker. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsFirstPersonDeixis.htm 19.09.06)

  • pronoun person second

  • second person pronoun

EAGLES Pronoun with Person="Second". According to Mish et al. (1990:878), this pertains to PersonalPronoun only (and ReflexivePronoun as German "dich"), so SecondPersonPronoun is modelled as a PersReflPronoun here.

TODO: Person as property

Second person deixis means deictic reference to a person or persons identified as addressee. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsSecondPersonDeixis.htm 19.09.06)

  • pronoun person second familiar

  • familiar second person pronoun

EAGLES PersonalPronoun with Politeness="Familiar". The EAGLES attribute politeness (polite/ familiar) is limited to second-person pronouns.

In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. The concept FamiliarSecondPersonPronoun applies to the corresponding unmarked forms for informal conversiation in such languages. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)

  • pronoun person second polite

  • polite second person pronoun

EAGLES PersonalPronoun with Politeness="Polite". The EAGLES attribute politeness (polite/ familiar) is limited to second-person pronouns. In French, for example, it is possible to treat Polite simply as pragmatic values encoded through other attributes - especially person and number. In languages where there are special polite pronoun forms (e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted), the additional Politeness attribute is required. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)

TODO: Politeness as feature rather than a concept.

In several European languages exist special forms of pronouns for polite or respectful reference, e.g. Dutch u and Spanish usted. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1p 19.09.06)

  • pronoun person third

  • third person pronoun

 
  • pronoun personal

  • personal pronoun

EAGLES PersReflPronoun with "Special PronounType"="Personal".

TODO: the SIL definition (also used in GOLD) is nonsatisfactory. German reflexive pronouns have person distinction, so this definition actually applies to EAGLES PersReflPronoun rather than EAGLES PersonalPronoun.

A personal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a distinction of person deixis. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAPersonalPronoun.htm 19.09.06) Note that (despite the SIL definition), an olia:PersonalPronoun refers to irreflexive personal pronouns. Personal pronoun categories without reflexivity sensitivity should be mapped onto olia:PersReflPronoun. (CC)

  • pronoun personal affixed

  • affixed personal pronoun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2221, modelled as a subClassOf PersonalPronoun, clitic pronouns are weak personal pronouns

Personnal pronoun that is affixed. (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2221)

subClassOf pronoun (dcif:isA)

  • pronoun personal strong

  • strong personal pronoun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1390

Personal pronoun that can occupy the position after a preposition and/or reinforce a weak personal pronoun. (Eagles; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1390)

subClassOf personalPronoun (dcif:isA)

  • pronoun personal weak

  • weak personal pronoun

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1414

Personal pronoun that cannot occupy the position after a preposition and/or reinforce a strong personal pronoun. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1414)

subClassOf personalPronoun (dcif:isA)

  • pronoun possessive

  • possessive pronoun

 
  • pronoun reciprocal

  • reciprocal pronoun

EAGLES PersReflPronoun with "Special PronounType"="Reciprocal".

A reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAReciprocalPronoun.htm 19.09.06)

  • pronoun refl pers

  • pers refl pronoun

EAGLES Pronoun with Pron.-Type="Pers/Ref".

TODO: This class should be renamed to PersonalPronoun, as it corresponds to the definition of PersonalPronoun in GOLD. Subclasses then should be renamed to ReflexivePronoun and NonreflexivePersonalPronoun.

In Eagles personal and reflexive pronouns are brought together as a single value Pers./Refl. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recp 19.09.06)

  • pronoun reflexive

  • reflexive pronoun

EAGLES PersReflPronoun with SpecialPronounType="Reflexive".

A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun that has coreference with the subject. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAReflexivePronoun.htm 19.09.06)

  • pronoun relative

  • relative pronoun

 
  • pronoun substitutive

  • substitutive pronoun

introduced to account for non-attributive pronouns, see olia:AttributivePronoun

non-attributive pronoun

  • pronoun zero

  • zero pronoun

PTB bracketing guidelines, Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995; often considered as extremely weak form of personal pronouns (Ariel 1990; Givón 1995)

*|An asterisk represents a zero pronoun; it may need to be deleted. ... * is used to represent the empty subject of gerunds, imperatives and to-infinitive clauses. (Santorini 1991) (NP *) â ´ arbitrary PRO, controlled PRO, and trace of A-movement (Bies et al. 1995)

  • proximal

added in accordance with http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticProximalDeterminer

The referent denoted by a distal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English that) is usually spatially more remote or discoursally less salient as compared to a referent denoted by a proximal demonstrative pronoun (e.g., English this) (Chiarcos)

  • proximative third

  • third proximative

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdProximative, modelled here under Third

Proximative refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-particpants. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdProximative)

  • punctuation

EAGLES top-level category Punctuation (PU). For subconcepts, Wilson and Leech (1996) propose two alternative classifications: Here, we implement the more interesting, i.e. position (the alternative is just enumeration of possible signs)

Punctuation marks (PU) are treated here as a part of morphosyntactic annotation, as it is very common for punctuation marks to be tagged and to be treated as equivalent to words for the purposes of automatic tag assignment. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mp 19.09.06)

  • punctuation final sentence

  • sentence final punctuation

added in accordance with http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv

SentenceFinalPunctuation are . ? !. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv 19.09.06)

  • punctuation interrogative

  • interrogative punctuation

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2087

Punctuation used when the sentence is interrogative. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2087)

  • punctuation main

  • main punctuation

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2075

Punctuation that is more important than a secondary punctuation with regards to sentence splitting in a text. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2075)

subClassOf punctuation (dcif:isA)

  • punctuation medial sentence

  • sentence medial punctuation

added in accordance with a suggestion by Wilson and Leech (1996)

SentenceMedialPunctuation are , ; : - . (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv 19.09.06)

  • punctuation parenthetical

  • parenthetical punctuation

Parenthetical elements are dominated by a node labeled PRN. Punctuation marks that set off a parenthetical (i.e., commas, dashes, parentheses (-LRB- and -RRB-)) are contained within the PRN node. Use of PRN is determined ultimately by individual annotator intuition, though the presence of dashes or parentheses strongly suggests a parenthetical. (Bies et al. 1995)

added in conformance with Penn Treebank Bracketing Guidelines (Bies et al. 1995)

  • punctuation parenthetical left

  • left parenthetical punctuation

TODO: rename to OpeningPerentheticalPunctuation to support scripts running from left to right.

added in accordance with a suggestion by Wilson and Leech (1996); http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2078 (open punctuation)

Beginning of a paired punctuation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2078)

TODO: rename to OpenPunctuation

  • punctuation parenthetical right

  • right parenthetical punctuation

TODO: rename to ClosePunctuation to support scripts running from left to right

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2079

added in accordance with EAGLES suggestions (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv)

End of a paired punctuation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2079) RightParentheticalPunctuation is a punctuation mark which concludes a constituent whose the opening is marked by a LeftParentheticalPunctuation, e.g. ), ] and Spanish ?. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recv 19.09.06)

  • punctuation secondary

  • secondary punctuation

 
  • quadrial

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2000

Property related to four elements. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2000)

subClassOf grammaticalNumber (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • qualifier

 
  • quantifier

A category "Quantifier" is missing in EAGLES, but seems to be conflated with IndefiniteDeterminer. Added as top-level concept in accordance with the SFB632 annotation guidelines. Against the original (and meanwhile corrected) modelling in GOLD, Quantifier is not a subconcept of Determiner.

A quantifier is a determiner that expresses a referent's definite or indefinite number or amount. A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun, or pronoun. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuantifier.htm 19.09.06)

  • quantifier demonstrative

  • demonstrative quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DemonstrativeQuantifier

In the Czech and Slovak MTE v4 specs, Numeral/Class="demonstrative" are items meaning `this many/much', etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns (because they contain a demonstrative element) or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DemonstrativeQuantifier)

  • quantifier dual

  • dual quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DualQuantifier

Quantifiers that enforce dual agreement (i.e., as with the numeral "2"). Some feminine and neuter body parts in Czech have preserved dual forms, and if the noun is dual, so are its attributes (adjectives, pronouns). So the agreement of the numeral 2 differs formally from 3-4 (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/16, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DualQuantifier) Numeral/Class="definite", Numeral/Class="definite1", Numeral/Class="definite234" etc. refer to specific patterns of congruency with Slavic numerals that originate from the difference between Old Slavic singular (definite1), dual (definite2, definite234) and plural (definite). (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#DualQuantifier)

  • quantifier indefinite

  • indefinite quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#IndefiniteQuantifier

In the Czech and Slovak MTE v4 specs, Numeral/Class="indefinite" are items meaning `several/some', etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#IndefiniteQuantifier)

  • quantifier interrogative

  • interrogative quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#InterrogativeQuantifier

In the Czech and Slovak MTE v4 pecs, Numeral/Class="interrogative" are items meaning `how many/much', etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#InterrogativeQuantifier)

  • quantifier paucal

  • paucal quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PaucalQuantifier

Quantifiers that enforce paucal agreement. In many Slavic languages, numerals between 2 and 4 (and some quantifiers) involve a specific agreement patterns that is different from that of smaller and greater numbers. In Russian, for example, genitive singular is requires. These numerals and quantifiers with the same characteristics are referred to here as "paucal quantifiers". (cf. David Pesetsky, http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~jtrommer/Harvard/pesetsky.pdf)

  • quantifier plural

  • plural quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#PluralQuantifier Numeral/Class="definite", Numeral/Class="definite1", Numeral/Class="definite234" etc. refer to specific patterns of congruency with Slavic numerals that originate from the difference between Old Slavic singular (definite1), dual (definite2, definite234) and plural (definite).

A PluralQuantifier is a Quantifier (or Numeral) that specifies a large multitude of entities. The agreement pattern of a plural quantifier is different from that or an singular quantifier, but as opposed to DualQuantifier and PaucalQuantifier, PluralQuantifier includes quantifiers that denote arbitrarily large sets of entities. (Chiarcos) The corresponding category in Czech, Polish and Slovak MTE v4 specs is Numeral/Class="definite", that refers to numerals larger than four. (MTE v4)

  • quantifier pro

  • pro quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ProQuantifier

A ProQuantifier is a quantifier derived from a pronominal element. ProQuantifiers thus partly characterized as pronouns (e.g., as pronominal adverbs) or quantifiers (e.g., "indefinite numeral" as in MTE v.4). (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#ProQuantifier)

  • quantifier relative

  • relative quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RelativeQuantifier

In the Czech MTE v4 specs, Numeral/Class="relative" are items meaning `how many/much', `as many/much' etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11, http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#RelativeQuantifier)

  • quantifier singular

  • singular quantifier

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SingularQuantifier (MTE v4 Numeral/Class="definite1", http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#SingularQuantifier) Numeral/Class="definite", Numeral/Class="definite1", Numeral/Class="definite234" etc. refer to specific patterns of congruency with Slavic numerals that originate from the difference between Old Slavic singular (definite1), dual (definite2, definite234) and plural (definite).

A singular quantifier is a quantifier or a numeral that specifies a single referent from a set. (Chiarcos) In Czech and Slovak MTE v4 specs, the corresponding category Numeral/Class="definite1" is applied to the numeral "one". (MTE v4)

  • question

Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995

There are two types of questions: direct questions (which are main clauses ending with a question mark) and indirect questions (which are subordinate clauses embedded under a verb). In this section, we discuss only direct questions; indirect questions are bracketed as SBARâ ¹s (see Section 5.17). (Santorini 1991)

  • question direct

  • direct question

 
  • question no yes

  • yes no question

Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995

There are two types of direct questions: yes-no questions and wh-questions. Yes-no questions should be bracketed as SQ. The auxiliary verb or form of do that precedes the subject in a yes-no question is a child of SQ. Note that yes-no questions need not contain a VP node (Santorini 1991)

  • quote

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2081

Punctuation usually used to surround a quotation. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2081)

  • reduplication

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2346 (reduplication)

process to modify the sense of a word by some operations to repeat the sound of a word. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2346)

  • reflexive

TODO: integrate with Voice, rename to ReflexiveVoice

A reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient (typically represented syntactically by the subject and the direct object) are the same. In many languages, reflexive constructions are rendered by transitive verbs followed by a reflexive pronoun, as in English -self (e. g., She threw herself to the floor.). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verbs 20.11.06)

  • reflexive non

  • non reflexive

TODO: remove

A non-reflexive verb is a verb whose semantic agent and patient (typically represented syntactically by the subject and the direct object) are not the same. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflexive_verbs 20.11.06)

  • register dialect

  • dialect register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1990

Register that is specific to a dialect. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1990)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register facetious

  • facetious register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1991

Register related to an expression that is intended to be clever and funny but that is really silly and annoying. (Longma DCE; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1991)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register formal

  • formal register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1992

Formal register. (12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1992)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register house in

  • in house register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1993

Register of terms that are company-specific and not readily recognized outside this environment. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1993)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register ironic

  • ironic register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1994

Register for irony. (12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1994)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register level bench

  • bench level register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1989

Register of terms used in applications-oriented as opposed to theoretical or academic levels of language. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1989)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register neutral

  • neutral register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1999

The register appropriate to general texts or discourse. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1999)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register slang

  • slang register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1995

An extremely informal register of a word, term, or text that is used in spoken and everyday language and less commonly in documents. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1995)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register taboo

  • taboo register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1996

Register that expresses a situation that people avoid because it is extremely offensive or embarrassing. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1996)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register technical

  • technical register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1997

The register appropriate to scientific texts or special languages. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1997)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • register vulgar

  • vulgar register

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1998

Register of a term or text type that can be characterized as profane or socially unacceptable. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1998)

subClassOf register (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • relation

 
  • relation dependency

  • dependency relation

 
  • relation dominance

  • dominance relation

 
  • relation lexical

  • lexical relation

 
  • relation syntactic

  • syntactic relation

TODO: check TDS and GOLD

  • residual

EAGLES top-level category Residual (R) with the exception of its subclass "Unclassified". Unclassified is not represented in the OLiA ontology, as it does not represent information, but the absence of information.

From a linguistic point of view, Residuals are a heterogeneous class and so, Residual may overlap with every linguistically motivate annotation concept. Also between subconcepts, overlap may occur (e.g. \LaTeX which is a symbol which can be read as an Acronym or acronyms which are related to Abbreviations, e.g. GNU "Gnu is not Unix")

The residual value (R) is assigned to classes of text words which lie outside the traditionally accepted range of grammatical classes, although they occur quite commonly in many texts and very commonly in some. For example: foreign words, or mathematical formulae. It can be argued that these are on the fringes of the grammar or lexicon of the language in which the text is written. Nevertheless, they need to be tagged. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mr 19.09.06) Although words in the Residual category are on the periphery of the lexicon, they may take some of the grammatical characteristics, e.g., of nouns. Acronyms such as IBM are similar to proper nouns; symbols such as alphabetic characters can vary for singular and plural (e.g. How many Ps are there in `psychopath'?), and are in this respect like common nouns. In some languages (e.g. Portuguese) such symbols also have gender. It is quite reasonable that in some tagging schemes some of these classes of word will be classified under other parts of speech. (The Unclassified category applies to word-like text segments which do not easily fit into any of the foregoing values. For example: incomplete words and pause fillers such as er and erm in transcriptions of speech, or written representations of singing such as dum-de-dum. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recr 19.09.06)

  • role addressee

  • addressee role

added in conformance with PTB vocative, Bies et al. 1995

-VOC (vocative) — marks nouns of address, regardless of their position in the sentence. It is not coindexed to the subject and does not get -TPC when it is sentence-initial. (SQ (NP-VOC Mike) , would (NP-SBJ you) (INTJ please) (VP close (NP the door)) ?) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • role agent

  • agent role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#agentRole

An agentive role is one in which the actor exerts some degree of will(-power) in the execution of the event. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#agentRole)

  • role benefactor

  • benefactor role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#beneficiaryRole

A beneficiary (benefactor) instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who stands to benefit in some way from the event. Prototypically “benefit” here means “to do or be good to, to be of advantage or profit to; to improve, help forward” in some way. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#beneficiaryRole)

  • role cause

  • cause role

Cause indicates the reason why something happens and is often expressed by a PP (because of, with, through etc.). Sometimes this role is close to the role of Instrument. The criterion for the choice of tag CAUSE is if the expression can be paraphrased through a clausal subordinate clause. (Dipper et al. 2007, 5.3.10)

added in conformance with the SFB632 Annotation Guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007)

  • role comitative

  • comitative role

added in conformance with TIGER edge labels, this is explicitly not defined as a grammatical case

TODO: Check whether to be merged with ComitativeCase

Comitative carries the meaning 'with' or 'accompanied by' (Anderson, Stephen 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42;Dixon, R. 1972: 12; Gove, et al. 1966: 455). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Comitative) Comitative applies to an animate entity that accompanies a participant of the action. (Dipper et al. 2007, §5.3.12)

  • role condition

  • condition role

http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#ConditionalAdverb

Adverbial that denotes a condition. (Petrova and Odebrecht 2011)

  • role direction

  • direction role

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. (1995)

-DIR (direction) â ´ marks adverbials that answer the questions â ¼from where?â ½ and â ¼to where?â ½ It implies motion, which can be metaphorical as in â ¼...rose 5 pts. to 57-1/2â ½ or â ¼increased 70% to 5.8 billion yenâ ½ (see section 23 [â ¼Financialspeakâ ½ Conventions]). -DIR is most often used with verbs of motion/transit and financial verbs: (S (NP-SBJ I) (VP flew (PP-DIR from (NP Tokyo)) (PP-DIR to (NP New York)))) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • role experiencer

  • experiencer role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#experiencerRole, originally a subconcept of UndergoerMacroRole

An experiencer instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who takes the event in through sensory means in some way. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#experiencerRole)

  • role extent

  • extent role

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. (1995)

-EXT (extent) â ´ marks adverbial phrases that describe the spatial extent of an activity. -EXT was incorporated primarily for cases of movement in financial space, but is also used in analogous situations elsewhere. (S (NP-SBJ the Dow Jones Industrial Average) (VP plunged (NP-EXT 190.58 points))) (S (NP-SBJ She) (VP walked (NP-EXT 5 miles))) Obligatory complements do not receive -EXT: (S (NP-SBJ The sumo wrestler) (VP gained (NP 80 pounds))) Words such as fully and completely are absolutes and do not receive -EXT. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • role force

  • force role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#forceRole

A force role is one in which the instantiator (the “force”) exerts some degree of energy which initiates (or impacts on) the execution of the event. In contrast to an agent, an instantitor of a force may be an inanimate entity, such as a climactic condition. The non-controlling entity instigating a Process (=Dynamism or Change) (Dik, 1997:118) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#forceRole)

  • role goal

  • goal role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#goalRole

A goal role instantiates the (intended) end location (directional path) of an event. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#goalRole)

  • role instrument

  • instrument role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#instrumentRole, cf. TIGER edge label "Instrumental"

SemanticRole added in conformance with TIGER

  • role location

  • location role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#locationRole, cf. the TIGER edge label "Locative"

Semantic role for the final location of action or a time of the action. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1326) Adverbials that indicate place/setting of the event. (PP-LOC on (NP the moon)) May also indicate metaphorical location: (PP-LOC amongst (NP yourselves)) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • role macro actor

  • actor macro role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#actorRole

The most agentive semantic role of the current clause (van Valin and Lapolla 1997), designated subject (from a semantic point of view)

  • role macro undergoer

  • undergoer macro role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#undergoerRole

The least agentive argument of the current clause (van Valin and Lapolla 1997), the designated object (from a semantic perspective).

  • role malefactor

  • malefactor role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#maleficiaryRole

A maleficiary (malefactor) instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who stands to undergoe a misfortune, or be at a disadvantage in some way from the event. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#maleficiaryRole)

  • role manner

  • manner role

Manner applies to constituents that denote how something is carried out. Adverbs may also denote manner, however, they are not annotated at any of the syntactic layers. (Dipper et al. 2007, §5.3.11)

added in conformance with the SFB632 annotation scheme (Dipper et al. 2007)

  • role oblique

  • oblique role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#obliqueRole

A semantic role which is not straightforward. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#obliqueCase)

  • role path

  • path role

added in accordance with TIGER way (directional modifier)

added in accordance with TIGER way (directional modifier)

  • role patient

  • patient role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#patientRole

A patient instantiates the role of an entity which undergoes a change of state (Cruse 2000:284) http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#patientRole

  • role positioner

  • positioner role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#positionerRole

The entity controlling a Position (Dik, 1997:118) (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#positionerRole)

  • role possessor

  • possessor role

added in conformance with Stanford Parser Dependency Labels

Semantic role as used by the Stanford Dependency Parser

  • role processed

  • processed role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#processedRole

The entity that undergoes a Process (Dik, 1997:118). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#processedRole)

  • role purpose

  • purpose role

-PRP (purpose or reason) â ´ marks purpose or reason clauses and PPs. (Bies et al. 1995)

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Bies et al. 1995)

  • role recipient

  • recipient role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#recipientRole

A recipient instantiates the role of an entity (usually animate) who recieves an entity in some way from the event. <p> Prototypically “recieve” here means “to take in one’s hand, or into one’s possession (something held out or offered by another); to take delivery of (a thing) from another” in some way. (OED) </p> (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#recipientRole)

  • role semantic

  • semantic role

 
  • role source

  • source role

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#sourceRole

A source role instantiates the origin of an event or entity. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#sourceRole)

  • role syntactic

  • syntactic role

2010/04/08 merged with EAGLES NPFunction "NPFunction is an additional optional attribute for adjectives. It subsumes the values HeadFunction, Postmodifying and Premodifying." (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1a 20.11.06)

  • role target

  • target role

added as counterpart of SourceRole, see there

The target role instantiates the destination of an event or entity.

  • role theme

  • theme role

added in conformance with SFB632 Theme

TODO: check definition, AFAIK Theme also applies to the third (non-ACTOR, non-UNDERGOER) argument (Ch. Chiarcos)

Theme is a general term covering the notions of patient that means an entity affected by the action, of result that means an entity effected by the action, i.e. which emerges out of the action, or of theme that means an entity effected by the action, i.e. which emerges out of the action. (Dipper et al. 2007: §5.3.3)

  • role time

  • time role

added in conformance with Stanford Parser Dependency Label TIME and SFB632 annotation guidelines (Dipper et al. 2007)

Semantic role corresponding to the label "TIME" used by the Stanford Dependency Parser. Time covers a point or an interval of time at which the action takes place. (Dipper et al. 2007, §5.3.9) -TMP (temporal) — marks temporal or aspectual adverbials that answer the questions when, how often, or how long. It has some uses that are not strictly adverbial, such as with dates that modify other NPs (see section 11 [Modification of NP]). (Bies et al. 1995)

  • root

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2231

base of a word (MIRACL & LSCA; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2231)

  • second

EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Second

Refers to the person(s) the speaker is addressing (Crystal 1997: 285). (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Second)

  • sentence

 
  • sentence declarative

  • declarative sentence

Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995

S|Simple declarative clause, i.e. one that is not introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction or wh-word and that does not exhibit subject-verb inversion. (Santorini 1991) Simple declarative sentences: (S (NP-SBJ Casey) (VP threw (NP the ball))) ... S â ´ Simple declarative clause, i.e. one that is not introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction or wh-word and that does not exhibit subject-verb inversion. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • separable

EAGLES; note that UbyPos extends separability to particles

A separable verb is a verb that is composed of a verb stem and a separable affix. In some verb forms, the verb appears in one word, whilst in others the verb stem and the affix are separated. German and Dutch are notable for having many separable verbs. For example, the Dutch verb "aankomen" is a separable verb. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separable_verb 20.11.06)

  • separable non

  • non separable

EAGLES; note that UbyPos extends separability to particles

Non-separable verbs are not composed of a verb stem and a separable affix. (cf. SeparabilityFeature: Separable)

  • separator graphical

  • graphical separator

 
  • sequel

added in accordance with ILPOSTS (for Indian languages), http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Sequel

Adopted from ILPOSTS for Indian languages. No definition or examples provided: Distance=Sequel (http://purl.org/olia/ilposts.owl#Sequel)

TODO: provide definition

  • simple

EAGLES

Simple applies to the regular type of coordinator occurring between conjuncts: German und, for example. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1av 17.11.06)

  • singular

EAGLES

Singular is a grammatical number denoting a unit quantity (as opposed to the plural and other forms). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singular 17.11.06)

  • slash

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1437

The punctuation sign / (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1437)

subClassOf partOfSpeech (dcif:conceptualDomain)

Parenthetical in Russian (instead of "(", ")"), sentence medial in English

  • space

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2189

Empty area between words, lines or columns (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-2189)

  • specific

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#CliticSpecificDeterminer

"By ʻspecificʼ and ʻnon-specificʼ I intend the difference between the two readings of English indefinites like (3): (3) Iʼm looking for a deer. In the specific reading there is a particular deer, say Bambi, that I am looking for. In the non-specific reading I will be happy to find any deer. Von Heusinger (2002) likes the test in English of inserting ʻcertainʼ after the ʻaʼ to fix the specific reading. In either reading of (3) a deer is being introduced as a new discourse referent. This is opposed to ʻdefiniteʼ which requires a previous pragmatic instantiation as in ʻIʼm looking for the deer.ʼ In English both the readings of (3) are indefinite. In Klallam, the specific demonstratives are neither definite nor indefinite." (Montler, Timothy. 2007. Klallam demonstratives. Papers ICSNL XLVII. The 42nd International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Language, pp. 409-425. University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 20; on specific vs. nonspecific determiners in Klallam, a Salish language, http://montler.net/papers/KlallamDemons.pdf)

  • speech direct

  • direct speech

added in accordance with TIGER

added in accordance with TIGER

  • stem

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1389

Root of a word, together with any derivational affixes, to which inflectional affixes are added. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAStem.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1389)

  • strong

EAGLES

TODO: rename to StrongPronoun

Strong pronouns are different from the weak pronouns (cf. StrengthFeature:Weak)

  • subject intransitive

  • intransitive subject

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#S

Intransitive argument (S), single argument of an intransitive verb or only argument in a one-place predicate (frame). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#S)

  • subject syntactic

  • syntactic subject

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticSubject

The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. Providing an adequate definition of the notion of a subject is notoriously difficult, and depends on a range of grammatical properties that may vary from language to language. For this reason, many current grammatical theories avoid using the term, except for purely descriptive purposes, or define it in terms of occupying a particular position in the clause. The term subject refers to the grammatical function an expression may have in relation to other expressions in a sentence, and it should be distinguished from parts of speech, which classify expressions independently of their relations to other constituents of a sentence. The subject of a verb is the argument which generally refers to the origin of the action or the undergoer of the state shown by the verb. However, this definition depends on the particular language under consideration. In languages where a passive voice exists, the subject of a passive verb may be the target or result of the action. This is a semantic definition. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subject_(grammar)). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#syntacticSubject)

  • subject transitive

  • transitive subject

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#A

First argument of a transitive or ditransitive verb. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#A)

  • suffix

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1395

Affix added at the end of the word to change its meaning or part of speech. (Sue Ellen Wright + Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1395)

  • superlative

EAGLES, http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1422

The superlative of an adjective or adverb is a form of adjective or adverb which indicates that something has some feature to a greater degree than anything it is being compared to in a given context. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superlative 17.11.06)

  • supine

EAGLES NonFiniteVerb with VerbForm="Supine".

Supine is a nonfinite form of motion verbs with functions similar to that of an infinitive (Angelika Adams)

  • symbol

EAGLES Category Residual with Type="Symbol".

In morphosyntactic annotation schemes, a symbol is a single graphical sign that occurs in a written text with a conventionalized meaning but that does not represent a phoneme (like ordinary characters), an orthogaphic sign (punctuation), or a number. (Christian Chiarcos) Symbols such as alphabetic characters can vary for singular and plural (e.g. How many Ps are there in `psychopath'?), and are in this respect like common nouns. In some languages (e.g. Portuguese) such symbols also have gender. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node17.html#recr)

  • tense absolute

  • absolute tense

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteTense

Absolute tense refers to a time in relation to the moment of utterance. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteTense with reference to http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/whatisabsolutetense.htm")

  • tense perfect past

  • past perfect tense

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1348

Past perfect tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time in the past relative to a reference point, which itself is in the past relative to the moment of utterance (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsPastPerfectTense.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1348)

denoting a tense of verbs used in relating past events where the action had already occurred at the time of the action of a main verb that is itself in a past tense. In English this is a compound tense formed with had plus the past participle (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=past+perfect; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1348)

  • tense pluperfect

  • pluperfect tense

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastInPast, classified as absolute-relative tense here.

PastInPast tense locates the situation in question prior to a reference time in the past. Also known as PluperfectTense. (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastInPast)

  • tense relative

  • relative tense

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeTense

Relative tense is a tense that refers to a time in relation to a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter’s temporal relation to the moment of utterance. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#relativeTense with reference to http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/whatisrelativetense.htm)

  • tense relative absolute

  • absolute relative tense

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteRelativeTense

Absolute-relative tense is a tense that (i) refers to a time in relation to a temporal reference point that, in turn, is referred to in relation to the moment of utterance (ii) in which the time and the reference point are not identical, and (iii) the reference point and the moment of utterance are not identical. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#absoluteRelativeTense with reference to http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryoflinguisticterms/whatisabsoluterelativetense.htm)

  • text

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1847

Series of sentences expressed in a natural language. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1847)

  • text running in title

  • title in running text

-TTL (title) — is attached to the top node of a title when this title appears inside running text. -TTL implies -NOM. The internal structure of the title is bracketed as usual. (See section 12 [Titles] for more information about the bracketing of titles.) (Bies et al. 1995)

PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995

  • theme ditransitive

  • ditransitive theme

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#T

Ditransitive theme (T) (Siewierska 2004:57). (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#T)

  • third

EAGLES, http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Third

Third person is deictic reference to a referent(s) not identified as the speaker or addressee. For example in English "he", "she", "they" or the third person singular verb suffix -s, e.g. in "He sometimes flies." (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsThirdPersonDeixis.htm 20.11.06)

  • token

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1403

Character string surrounded by separators. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1403)

  • topic hanging

  • hanging topic

http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#HangingTopic

HangingTopic constructions are closely related to LeftDislocation. Unlike LeftDislocation, the dislocated element and its resuming pronoun do not necessarily agree in case, number and gender. (Petrova and Odebrecht 2011, http://purl.org/olia/tcodex.owl#HangingTopic)

  • topicalization

PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. 1995

Topicalization structures are ones where a non-subject immediately precedes a subject, which immediately precedes the verb/auxiliary of the sentence. Two examples: Pizza, John likes. Tomorrow, I will go to the store. Such examples should be bracketed as adjunction structures. (Santorini 1991) -TPC (“topicalized”) — marks elements that appear before the subject in a declarative sentence, but in two cases only: (i) if the fronted element is associated with a *T* in the position of the gap. (ii) if the fronted element is left-dislocated (i.e., it is associated with a resumptive pronoun in the position of the gap). (See the section on fronted elements in section 1 [Overview of Basic Clause Structure] for more details on the treatment of fronted elements and the section on *T* with fronted elements in section 4 [Null Elements] for more details on the distribution of *T*.) (Bies et al. 1995) Fronted elements are placed inside the top clause level (e.g. S, SINV, SQ, SBAR). (Only certain fronted elements are tagged -TPC: (i) constituents associated with a *T* in the position of the gap and (ii) left-dislocated constituents (those associated with a resumptive pronoun in the position of the gap).) (See section 1 [Overview of Basic Clause Structure] for more details on the treatment of fronted elements.) (Bies et al. 1995)

  • trace

PTB bracketing guidelines, Bies et al. (1995)

T|Trace. Marks the position where a fronted wh-constituent is interpreted. ... T marks the spot where an argument NP that has been moved by wh-movement or relative clause formation is interpreted. For instance, the relative clause the man that I saw should be bracketed as follows, by analogy to the corresponding simple declarative I saw the man. (NP (NP the man) (SBAR that (S (NP I) (VP saw) (NP T))))) T is also used to represent the empty subjects of as-clauses. (Santorini 1991) *T* â ´ trace of Aâ ²-movement (Bies et al. 1995)

  • transgressive

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1404

present (action in the same time as of the predicate): The dog going through the house barks. past (action premature to the one of predicate): He has started to read the book after he had sat down. (ark.wz.cz/cidarke/mverb.html; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1404)

  • transitive

SUSANNE (Sampson 1995)

A predicate/verb that takes two arguments, e.g., English "to kiss", cf. van Valin and Lapolla (1997).

  • trial

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1407

Grammatical number referring to 'three things', as opposed to 'singular' and 'plural'. (en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_number; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1407)

subClassOf grammaticalNumber (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • type narrative

  • narrative type

 
  • typo

a mis-typed word

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Typo

  • uncountable

EAGLES, remodelling of MassNoun vs. CommonNoun

A mass noun (also uncountable noun or non-count noun) can't be modified by a numeral, occur in singular/plural or co-occur with the relevant kind of determiner. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_noun 19.09.06)

  • uninflected

Chiarcos, cf. BaseForm in Susanne (Sampson 1995) and related schemes, and http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#UnmarkedForGender

In many inflecting languages, there occur lexemes whose form does not change throughout the paradigm, e.g., Russian papa "dad". For such forms, the category uninflected may be assigned. However, Uninflected is not to be confused with BaseForm that applies to forms in a paradigm where overt marking exists. Uninflected is a characteristic of lexemes, not individual tokens.

For the EMILLE tagset (for Urdu, Hardi 2003), we need the possibility to specify that a lexeme is (un)inflected ([un]marked) *for a specific feature* (e.g., Gender, http://purl.org/olia/emille.owl#GenderMarking). At the moment, this cannot be expressed.

  • unique

EAGLES top-level category Unique (U). "The unique value (U) is applied to categories with a unique or very small membership, such as negative particle, which are ‘unassigned’ to any of the standard part-of-speech categories. The value unique cannot always be strictly applied, since (for example) Greek has three negative particles ... No subcategories are recommended, although it is expected that tagsets for individual languages will need to identify such one-member word-classes as Negative particle, Existential particle, Infinitive marker, etc" (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html) According to the EAGLES definition and examples, this seems to be closely related to "particle". Particles are uninflected function words, in a broader sense, everything which is not inflected is a particle, i.e. including interjections, in GOLD, uninflected items such as adpositions, conjunctions and interjections are excluded: "A particle is a partOfSpeech whose members do not belong to one of the main classes of words, is invariable, and typically has grammatical or pragmatic meaning." The EAGLES definition emphasizes the invariability of particles.

TODO: rename to Particle

Unique approximates the linguistic concept "Particle". It covers categories with unique or very small membership, such as negative particle, which are `unassigned' to any of the standard part-of-speech categories. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node16.html#mp 19.09.06)

  • unit lexical

  • lexical unit

 
  • unit omitted

  • omitted unit

added in conformance with PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

*U* â ´ unit ... This element marks the interpreted position of a unit symbol, such as $, # (British pounds), FFr (French francs), C$, US$, HK$, A$, M$, S$, and NZ$. It may also appear after % or even cents, when convenient. See section 11 [Modification of NP] for more details on the use of *U*. ... In general, *U* is placed where the word corresponding to the symbol would appear in the string if the text were read aloud. One notable exception is in certain hyphenated compound adjectives, such as a $5-a-share increase (spoken: â ¼A five dollar a share increaseâ ½). Here, the bracketing will usually not reflect the spoken order, with *U* placed as the last element in the ADJP: (NP a (ADJP $ 5-a-share *U*) increase) Sometimes, this type may lack the *U* entirely. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • unit semantic

  • semantic unit

 
  • usage defined temporally

  • temporally defined usage

 
  • usage modern

  • modern usage

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1962 (modern)

Currently in use. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1962)

subClassOf dating (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • usage old

  • old usage

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1961

Used in the past. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1961)

subClassOf dating (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • used commonly

  • commonly used

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1984

Said of a term that appears frequently. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1984)

subClassOf frequency (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • used infrequently

  • infrequently used

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1985

Said of a term that does not appear frequently. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1985)

subClassOf frequency (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • used rarely

  • rarely used

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1986

Said of a term that is almost never used. (ISO12620; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1986)

subClassOf frequency (dcif:conceptualDomain)

  • utterance

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1409

Complete unit of talk, bounded by the speaker's silence. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnUtterance.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1409)

  • variant geographical

  • geographical variant

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1851

Description of a specific form used in a certain region as opposed to another form used in another region (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1851)

  • verb

EAGLES top-level category "Verb" (V)

A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action ("bring", "read"), occurrence ("decompose", "glitter"), or a state of being ("exist", "stand"). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. It may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments (subject, object, etc.). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verb 19.09.06)

  • verb auxiliary

  • auxiliary verb

EAGLES Verbs with Status="Auxiliary", http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1244

An auxiliary verb is a verb which accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase, and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb, such as person, number, tense aspect, and voice. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAuxiliaryVerb.htm 19.09.06) Besides modal verbs ("semiauxiliary") and "strict" auxiliary verbs, also copulas are classified under auxiliary verbs here, as this is a praxis applied in practically every EAGLES-conformant morphosyntactic annotation scheme. Part of speech referring to the set of verbs, subordinate to the main lexical verb which help to make distinction in mood, aspect, voice etc. (Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1244)

  • verb auxiliary strict

  • strict auxiliary verb

Definition in accordance with the SFB632 definition of "auxiliary verb" as non-copular and non-modal verb. In EAGLES, auxiliary verb also seems to be non-modal: In addition to main and auxiliary verbs, it may be useful (e.g. in English) to recognise an intermediate category of semi-auxiliary for such verbs as be going to, have got to, ought to. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1v 20.09.06)

Non-modal, non-copular auxiliary verb.

  • verb conditional

  • conditional verb

EAGLES finite verb with VerbForm="Conditional".

TODO: reimplement with properties

A conditional verb is a verb form in many languages. It is used to express degrees of certainty or uncertainty and hypothesis about past, present, or future. Such forms often occur in conditional sentences. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conditional_mood 19.09.06)

  • verb finite

  • finite verb

EAGLES Verb with Finiteness="Finite".

A finite verb is a verb form that occurs in an independent clause, and is fully inflected according to the inflectional categories marked on verbs in the language. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAFiniteVerb.htm 19.09.06) Property applied to a verb form that can occur on its own in an independent sentence. (Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1287)

  • verb finite non

  • non finite verb

EAGLES Verb with Finiteness="Non-finite".

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1332

Verb forms occurring on their own only in dependent clauses and lacking tense and mood contrasts. (adapted from Crystal 2003; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1332) A non-finite verb is a verb that is not fully inflected for categories that are marked inflectionally in a language, such as the following: Tense, Aspect, Modality, Number, Person. (http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsANonfiniteVerb.htm 19.09.06)

  • verb imperative

  • imperative verb

EAGLES FiniteVerb with VerbForm="Imperative"

An imperative verb is used to express commands, direct requests, and prohibitions. Often, direct use of the imperative mood may appear blunt or even rude, so it is often used with care. Example: "Paul, read that book". (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_mood#Imperative_mood 19.09.06)

  • verb impersonal

  • impersonal verb

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1306

An impersonal verb is a verb that - occurs only in third person singular forms - has no specified agent , and - has a dummy subject or no subject. (www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnImpersonalVerb.htm; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1306)

(of a verb) having no logical subject. Usually in English the pronoun it is used in such cases as a grammatical subject, as for example in It is raining. (of a pronoun) not denoting a person (www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=impersonal; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1306)

  • verb indicative

  • indicative verb

EAGLES FiniteVerb with VerbForm="Indicative"

Indicative mood is used in factual statements. All intentions in speaking that a particular language does not put into another mood use the indicative. It is the most commonly used mood and is found in all languages. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_mood#Indicative_mood 19.09.06)

  • verb light

  • light verb

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#LightVerb, for Farsi

In linguistics, a light verb is a verb participating in complex predication that has little semantic content of its own, but provides through inflection some details on the event semantics, such as aspect, mood, or tense. The semantics of the compound, as well as its argument structure, are determined by the head or primary component of the compound, which may be a verb or noun (V+V or V+N compounds). Other names for "light verb" include: vector verb or explicator verb, emphasising its role within the compound; or thin verb or semantically weak verb, emphasising (as with "light") its lack of semantics. A "semantically weak" verb is not to be confused with a "weak verb" as in the Germanic weak inflection. Light verbs are similar to auxiliary verbs in some ways. Most English light verbs occur in V+N forms sometimes called "stretched verbs": for example, take in take a nap, where the primary sense is provided by "nap", and "take" is the light verb. The light verbs most common in these constructions are also common in phrasal verbs. A verb which is "light" in one context may be "heavy" in another: as with "take" in I will take a book to read. Examples in other languages include the Yiddish geb in geb a helf (literally give a help, "help"); the French faire in faire semblant (lit. make seeming, "pretend"); the Hindi nikal paRA (lit. leave fall, "start to leave"); and the bǎ construction in Chinese.[1] Some verbs are found in many such expressions; to reuse an earlier example, take is found in take a nap, take a shower, take a sip, take a bow, take turns, and so on. Light verbs are extremely common in Indo-Iranian languages, Japanese, and other languages in which verb compounding is a primary mechanism for marking aspectual distinctions. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_verb)

  • verb main

  • main verb

to be renamed to LexicalVerb ("main verb" can also mean "head of a finite clause")

http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1400 (main verb)

Main verb in contrast to a modal or an auxiliary. (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1400) verb which has its own semantics (http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-3004, plainVerb)

subClassOf verb (dcif:isA)

  • verb modal

  • modal verb

Added for compatibility with the SFB632 annotation guidelines. May correspond to the (optional, French-only) EAGLES feature value "semiauxiliary". http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1329

TODO: rename to semiauxiliary, this seems to be a more language-independent term

Verb form that is usually used with another verb to express ideas such as possibilities, permission, or intention. (Gil Francopoulo; http://www.isocat.org/datcat/DC-1329) A modal verb (also modal, modal auxiliary verb, modal auxiliary) is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality. The use of auxiliary verbs to express modality is characteristic of Germanic languages. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_verb 19.09.06) In addition to main and auxiliary verbs, it may be useful (e.g. in English) to recognise an intermediate category of semi-auxiliary for such verbs as be going to, have got to, ought to. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/annotate/node18.html#oav1v 20.09.06) The auxiliaries in English subdivide into the primary verbs `be', `have', and `do', which can also function as main verbs, and the modal auxiliaries such as `can', `will', and `would', which are uninflected, and always function as auxiliaries. (http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/morphsyn/node158.html#SECTION00054800000000000000)

  • verb nominalized

  • nominalized verb

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withNominalProperites

A non-finite embedded construction which contains features with nominal properties (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#withNominalProperites, with reference to Dik 1997)

  • verb quotative

  • quotative verb

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Quotative, MTE VForm="quotative" (Estonian)

A quotative is grammatical device to mark reported speech in some languages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotative), e.g., in Estonian.<br/> ‘Reportedly, while he was going (in his boat), he turned over.’ Ta olevat oma paadiga ümber läinud He was_QUOTATIVE his_own boat_WITH over gone.<br/> (Estonian translation of an example given under http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAQuotativeEvidential.htm) (Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, email 2010/06/22)

  • verb subjunctive

  • subjunctive verb

EAGLES finite verbs with VerbForm="Subjunctive".

TODO: remodelling by properties

A subjunctive verb is typically used to expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), emotion, possibility, judgment, necessity, and statements that are contrary to fact at present. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subjunctive_mood 19.09.06)

  • verbal

http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Verbal

In MULTEXT-East a characteristic of abbreviated verbs (http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#Verbal)

  • voice active

  • active voice

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#activeVoice

When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_voice 17.11.06) Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object), or with intransitivity (McIntosh 1984:108). Refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis: Diathesis=D0:(X=SUBabs/nom) (Y=DIROBacc) (Shibatani 1995:7) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Active)

  • voice direct

  • direct voice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DirectVoice

Signals that the action proceeds in an ontologically salient way, i.e. that salience is assigned to nominals based on their referent's relative real-world capacities to control situations. (Klaiman 1991:32) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DirectVoice)

  • voice inverse

  • inverse voice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InverseVoice

Signals when actions proceed from ontologically less salient to more salient participants (Klaiman 1991:32) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InverseVoice)

  • voice inverse nonpromotional

  • nonpromotional inverse voice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonpromotionalInverse

Involves demotion of the non-topical obviate-agent from subjecthood. (Givon 1994:24) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonpromotionalInverse)

  • voice inverse pragmatic

  • pragmatic inverse voice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PragmaticInverse

If the agent is more topical than the patient, the direct-active clause is used. If norm is reversed and the patient is more topical, the inverse clause is used. (Givon 1994:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PragmaticInverse)

  • voice inverse promotional

  • promotional inverse voice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PromotionalInverse

Involves promotion of the topical proximate-patient to subjecthood. (Givon 1994:24) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PromotionalInverse)

  • voice inverse semantic

  • semantic inverse voice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticInverse

If the agent outranks the patient on the relevant generic topic hierarchy, the direct-active clause is used. If the relevant norm is reversed and the patient outranks the agent on the relevant hierarchy, the inverse clause is used. (Givon 1994:23) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticInverse)

  • voice middle

  • middle voice

 
  • voice passive

  • passive voice

 
  • voice referential

  • referential voice

http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReferentialVoice, classified as Antipassive here in analogy with ObliquePassive

entails assignment of the absolutive to certain kinds of arguments other than the logical subjects (A) and objects (P), including the dative, benefactive, malefactive, and possessor. (Klaiman 1991:239) (http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReferentialVoice)

  • voice reflexive

  • reflexive voice

http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#reflexiveVoice

The reflexive voice is a grammatical voice in which the subject is both the agent and the patient or recipient. (http://languagelink.let.uu.nl/tds/onto/LinguisticOntology.owl#reflexiveVoice)

  • whcleft

PTB bracketing guidelines (Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995)

Wh-clefts are constructions in which a wh-clause functions as the subject of a sentence. A simple example is What matters is the price. Here, the wh-clause What matters is the subject, and is the price is the predicate. The internal structure of the subject is: (NP (SBAR (WHNP what) (S (NP T) (VP matters)))) (Santorini 1991)

  • whdeterminer

TODO: This class is based on surface criteria of Indo-European languages. In other (and even IE) languages, relative pronouns are partly also derived from non-interrogatives, but rather from demonstratives, cf. English "that". Should be abandoned unless language-independent evidence for its existence is provided.

EAGLES Determiner with Det.-Type="Int./Rel.".

  • whpronoun

TODO: Check cross-linguistic validity of this class. This class is based on surface criteria of Indo-European languages. In other (and even IE) languages, relative pronouns are partly also derived from non-interrogatives, but rather from demonstratives, cf. English "that". Should be abandoned unless language-independent evidence for its existence is provided.

EAGLES Pronoun with Pron.-Type="Int./Rel.".

  • whquestion direct

  • direct whquestion

Santorini 1991, Bies et al. 1995

SBARQ|Direct question introduced by a wh-word or wh-phrase. See Section 5.32. Indirect questions and relative clauses should be bracketed as SBAR, not SBARQ. (Santorini 1991) Wh-questions should be bracketed as SBARQ. The wh-constituent (whether it is a subject or not) is a child of SBARQ; the rest of the question is an SQ. If the wh-constituent is a subject or an object, the position where it is interpreted should be represented by the empty element T. (Santorini 1991) The SBARQ label marks wh-questions (i.e., those that contain a gap and therefore require a trace). A further level of structure, SQ, contains the inverted auxiliary (if there is one) and the rest of the sentence. The inverted auxiliary in wh-questions is not labeled. ... SBARQ â ´ Direct question introduced by a wh-word or wh-phrase. See section 1 [Overview of Basic Clause Structure]. Indirect questions and relative clauses should be bracketed as SBAR, not SBARQ. (Bies et al. 1995)

  • weak

EAGLES

Weak pronouns are helping pronouns many languages have for easily explaining the possessive status of something, to which something belongs. Many languages have different ways to express this. For example, English has distinctive words for all of these: "my", "mine". Germanic languages and Romance languages have the same, but inflect them for gender: (Spanish example) "mío", "mía", "míos" and "mías" ("mine", in the masculine singular, feminine singular, masculine plural, and feminine plural form, respectively). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_pronoun 20.11.06)

  • word question

  • question word

 
  • ing

Introduced in accordance with EAGLES, where 'Ing' is suggested as a cover term for the Gerund-Participle-Merger in English. This is, however, a language-specific phenomenon and should instead be represented by multiple inheritance from OLiA Reference Model concepts.

English verb forms ending in '-ing' that represent either Gerunds or Participles.